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University of Palestine

Engineering Hydraulics
2nd semester 2010-2011

CHAPTER 1:
Water Flow in Pipes 1
Description of A Pipe Flow

• Water pipes in our homes and the distribution system

• Pipes carry hydraulic fluid to various components of


vehicles and machines

• Natural systems of “pipes” that carry blood throughout


our body and air into and out of our lungs.

2
Description of A Pipe Flow
• Pipe Flow: refers to a full water flow in a closed
conduits or circular cross section under a certain
pressure gradient.

• The pipe flow at any cross section can be described


by:
 cross section (A),
 elevation (h), measured with respect to a horizontal
reference datum.
 pressure (P), varies from one point to another, for a
given cross section variation is neglected
 The flow velocity (v), v = Q/A.
3
Difference between open-channel flow and the pipe flow

Pipe flow Open-channel flow


• The pipe is completely filled • Water flows without
with the fluid being completely filling the pipe.
transported.
• Gravity alone is the driving
• The main driving force is likely force, the water flows down
to be a pressure gradient along a hill.
the pipe.
4
Types of Flow

 Steady and Unsteady flow


The flow parameters such as velocity (v), pressure (P) and
density (r) of a fluid flow are independent of time in a
steady flow. In unsteady flow they are independent.

For a steady flow v t x ,y ,z


o o o
0

For an unsteady flow v t x ,y ,z


o o o
0

If the variations in any fluid’s parameters are small, the


average is constant, then the fluid is considered to be steady

5
Types of Flow

 Uniform and non-uniform flow


A flow is uniform if the flow characteristics at any given
instant remain the same at different points in the
direction of flow, otherwise it is termed as non-uniform
flow.

For a uniform flow v s t o


0

For a non-uniform flow v s t o


0

6
Types of Flow
Examples:
 The flow through a long uniform pipe diameter at a
constant rate is steady uniform flow.

 The flow through a long uniform pipe diameter at a


varying rate is unsteady uniform flow.

 The flow through a diverging pipe diameter at a constant


rate is a steady non-uniform flow.

 The flow through a diverging pipe diameter at a varying


rate is an unsteady non-uniform flow. 7
Types of Flow
 Laminar and turbulent flow
Laminar flow:
The fluid particles move along smooth well defined path or
streamlines that are parallel, thus particles move in laminas or
layers, smoothly gliding over each other.
Turbulent flow:
The fluid particles do not move in orderly manner and they
occupy different relative positions in successive cross-sections.
There is a small fluctuation in magnitude and direction of the
velocity of the fluid particles

Transitional flow
The flow occurs between laminar and turbulent flow
8
Types of Flow
Reynolds Experiment
Reynolds performed a very carefully prepared pipe flow
experiment.

9
Increasing
flow
velocity

10
Types of Flow
Reynolds Experiment
• Reynold found that transition from laminar to turbulent
flow in a pipe depends not only on the velocity, but only
on the pipe diameter and the viscosity of the fluid.

• This relationship between these variables is commonly


known as Reynolds number (NR)

VD VD
Inertial Forces
NR   
  Viscous Forces

It can be shown that the Reynolds number is a measure of


the ratio of the inertial forces to the viscous forces in the
flow
FI  ma A
FV 11
Types of Flow
Reynolds number

VD VD
NR  
 
where V: mean velocity in the pipe [L/T]
D: pipe diameter [L]
: density of flowing fluid [M/L3]
: dynamic viscosity [M/LT]
: kinematic viscosity [L2/T]

12
Types of Flow

13
Types of Flow
It has been found by many experiments that for flows in
circular pipes, the critical Reynolds number is about 2000

Flow laminar when NR < Critical NR


Flow turbulent when NR > Critical NR

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow does not always


happened at NR = 2000 but varies due to experiments
conditions….….this known as transitional range

14
Types of Flow
Laminar Vs. Turbulent flows

Laminar flows characterized Turbulent flows characterized


by: by
• low velocities • high velocities
• small length scales • large length scales
• high kinematic viscosities • low kinematic viscosities
• NR < Critical NR • NR > Critical NR
• Viscous forces are • Inertial forces are
dominant. dominant

15
Types of Flow

Example 1
40 mm diameter circular pipe carries water at 20oC.
Calculate the largest flow rate (Q) which laminar flow can
be expected.

D  0.04m

  1106 at T  20o C
VD V (0.04)
NR   2000   2000  V  0.05m / sec
 110 6


Q  V . A  0.05  (0.04) 2  6.28 10 5 m 3 / sec
4
16
Energy Head in Pipe Flow

Water flow in pipes may contain energy in three


basic forms:
1- Kinetic energy.

2- potential energy.

3- pressure energy.

2 2 Bernoulli Equation
V1 P1 V2 P2
  h1    h2 Energy per unit weight of water
2g  2g 
OR: Energy Head
17
Energy Head in Pipe Flow

Energy head and Head loss in pipe flow

18
Energy Head in Pipe Flow
2
V2 P2
H2    h2
2g 

Energy = Kinetic + Pressure +


Elevation
head head head head
2
V P
H1  1  1  h1
2g 
Notice that:
• In reality, certain amount of energy loss (hL) occurs when the
water mass flow from one section to another.
• The energy relationship between two sections can be written
as: 2 2
V1 P V P
 1  h1  2  2  h2  hL
2g  2g  19
Energy Head in Pipe Flow

Example

20
Energy Head in Pipe Flow
Example
In the figure shown:
Where the discharge through the system is 0.05 m3/s, the total losses through
the pipe is 10 v2/2g where v is the velocity of water in 0.15 m diameter pipe,
the water in the final outlet exposed to atmosphere.

21
Energy Head in Pipe Flow

Calculate the required


height (h =?)
below the tank

0.05
V Q
  2.83m / s
4 0.15 
A  2

0.05
V Q
  6.366m / s
4 0.10 
A  2

p1 V12 p2 V22
  z1    z 2  hL
g 2 g g 2 g

0  0  (h  5)  0 
6.366 
2
 20 
102.83
2

2 * 9.81 2 * 9.81
h  21.147 m 22
Energy Head in Pipe Flow
Without calculation sketch the (E.G.L) and (H.G.L)

23
Basic components of a typical pipe system

24
Calculation of Head (Energy) Losses
In General:
When a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences some
resistance due to which some of energy (head) of fluid is lost.

Energy Losses
(Head losses)

Major Losses Minor losses

loss of head due to pipe Loss due to the change of the


friction and to viscous velocity of the flowing fluid
dissipation in flowing in the magnitude or in
water direction as it moves
through fitting like Valves,
Tees, Bends and Reducers.
25
Calculation of Head (Energy) Losses

Head Losses in Pipelines

Part A:Major Losses

26
Losses of Head due to Friction
• Energy loss through friction in the length of pipeline is
commonly termed the major loss hf
• This is the loss of head due to pipe friction and to the viscous
dissipation in flowing water.
• Several studies have been found the resistance to flow in a
pipe is:
- Independent of pressure under which the water flows
- Linearly proportional to the pipe length, L
- Inversely proportional to some water power of the pipe diameter D
- Proportional to some power of the mean velocity, V
- Related to the roughness of the pipe, if the flow is turbulent

27
Losses of Head due to Friction
Energy Head & Head loss in pipe flow

28
Major losses formulas
Several formulas have been developed in the past. Some
of these formulas have faithfully been used in various
hydraulic engineering practices.
1. Darcy-Weisbach ( f )
2. Hazen-William (CHW)
3. Manning (n)
4. The Chezy Formula
5. The Strickler Formula

29
Major losses formulas
The resistance to flow in a pipe is a function of:

• The pipe length, L


• The pipe diameter, D
• The mean velocity, V
• The properties of the fluid .
• The roughness of the pipe, (the flow is
turbulent).

30
Major losses formulas
Darcy-Weisbach Equation
2 2
Where:
L V 8f LQ f is the friction factor
hL  f  
D 2 g g D5  2 L is pipe length
D is pipe diameter
Q is the flow rate
hL is the loss due to friction
It is conveniently expressed in terms of velocity (kinetic) head in the pipe

The friction factor is function of different terms:

   VD    VD     e  ks
f  F  Re ,   F  ,   F  , 
 D   D   D Re  N R

Renold number Relative roughness 31


Major losses formulas
Friction Factor: (f )
• For Laminar flow: (NR < 2000) [depends only on
Reynolds’ number and not on the surface roughness]
64
f 
NR
• Forturbulent flow in smooth pipes (e/D = 0) with
4000 < NR < 105 is
0.316
f  1/ 4
NR

32
Major losses formulas

For turbulent flow ( NR > 4000 ) with e/D > 0.0, the friction factor
can be founded from:
• Th.von Karman formulas:
1  NR f 
 2 log  
 2.51 
f  
1  D
 2 log  3.7  for N R  105
f  e
• Colebrook-White Equation for f
1  e 2.51 
 0.86 ln   
 
f  3.7 D N R f 

33
Major losses formulas
There is some difficulty in solving this equation
So, Miller improve an initial value for f , (fo)
2
  e 5.74 
f o  0.25log   0.9 
  3.7 D N R 
4 103  N R  1108
The value of fo can be use directly as f if: 6
110  e D  110- 2

Pandtle - Colebrook Equation


1  D
 2 log  3.71 
f  
use
for Re  105

There are other Equation such as Karman Equation see Text book 2 34
Friction Factor f
The thickness of the laminar sublayer  decrease with an increase in NR

laminar flow f independent of relative


NR < 2000 Smooth roughness e/D

e  '  1.7e 64 1 N f 
f   2 log10  R 

pipe wall NR f  2.51 

f varies with NR and e/D

 e  
transitionally   
 2 log10    
rough 1 D 2.51 
 e
f  3.7 N R f 
 
pipe wall 0.08e   '  1.7e  
Colebrook formula

turbulent flow
f independent of NR
rough
NR > 4000
e 1  D
   0.08e
'  2 log10  3.7 
f  e 35
pipe wall
Moody diagram
A convenient chart was prepared by Lewis F. Moody and
commonly called the Moody diagram of friction factors for pipe flow,
There are 4 zones of pipe flow in the chart:

• A laminar flow zone where f is simple linear function of Re


• A critical zone (shaded) where values are uncertain because
the flow might be neither laminar nor truly turbulent
• A transition zone where f is a function of both Re and
relative roughness
• A zone of fully developed turbulence where the value of f
depends solely on the relative roughness and independent
of the Reynolds Number
36
Moody diagram

37
Moody diagram
Transition

Laminar

critical

Marks Reynolds Number


independence 38
Moody diagram
Notes:

• Colebrook formula
is valid for the entire nonlaminar range (4000 <
Re < 108) of the Moody chart

1 e/ D 2.51 

  2 log   

f  3.7 Re f 

In fact , the Moody chart is a graphical representation of


this equation

39
Moody diagram

Bonus:
Find the theoretical formulation for friction
factor for laminar flow.

64
f 
Re

40
Absolute roughness
Typical values of the absolute roughness (e) are given

41
Absolute roughness
Materials Roughness

42
Problems (head loss)

Three types of problems for uniform flow


in a single pipe:
 Type 1:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the flow rate head loss ?

 Type 2:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss flow rate ?

 Type 3:
Given the kind of pipe, the head loss and flow rate size of pipe ?

43
Problems type I (head loss)

44
Example 2
The water flow in Asphalted cast Iron pipe (e = 0.12mm) has a diameter 20cm
at 20oC. Is 0.05 m3/s. determine the losses due to friction per 1 km
 Type 1:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the flow rate head loss ?
0.05m 3 /s
V  1.59m/s

π/4  0.2 m
2 2

T  20o C  υ  1.0110 6 m 2 /s
e  0.12mm
e 0.12mm
  0.0006 Moody f = 0.018
D 200mm
VD 1.59  0.2
NR    314852  3.15  10 5

 1.0110 6
L V2  1,000 m  1.59 
2
hf  f  0.018  
D 2g 
 0.20 m  2 9.81 m/s
2
 
45
 11.55 m
Example 3
The water flow in commercial steel pipe (e = 0.045mm) has a diameter 0.5m
at 20oC. Q=0.4 m3/s. determine the losses due to friction per 1 km
 Type 1:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the flow rate head loss ?

Q 0.4
V   2.037 m / s
A 0.52 
4
497 10 6 497 10 6
   1.006  10 6

T  42.51.5 20  42.51.5


0.5  2.037
NR   1. 012  10 6

1.006 10 6
e 0.045 5
  9  10
D 0.5 103
Moody
 f  0.013
2
1000 2.037
h f  0.013    5.5 m / km 46
0.5 2  9.81
Example 3-cont.
Use other methods to solve f
1  ks 2.51 
1- Cole brook  0.86 ln   
 3.7 D R f 
f  e 

2 2
  k s D 5.74    9  10 5 5.74 
f o  0.25log   0.9   0.25log     0.01334

  3.7 Re    3.7 1.012  10 6 0.9 


1  9 10 5 2.51 
 0.86 ln   
0.01334  3.7 Re 0.01334 

8.66  8.678

2
1000 2.037
h f  0.01334    5.5 m / km
0.5 2  9.81 47
Example 3-cont.

2- Pandtle - Colebrook Equation

1  D
 2 log  3.71 
f  
1  500 
 2 log  3.71 
f  0.045 
f  0.012  0.01334last solution 

48
Problems type II (head loss)

49
Method for solution of Type 2 problems

50
51

Relative roughness e/D


Example 4:

52
53
Example 4:

54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Example 5:
Cast iron pipe (e = 0.26), length = 2 km, diameter = 0.3m. Determine the
max. flow rate Q , If the allowable maximum head loss = 4.6m. T=10oC
 Type 2:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss flow rate ?
2
LV
hF  f
D 2g
2000 V2
4.6  f 
0.3 2  9.81
1
0.0135
V2  
497 10 6 497 10 6
f    1.31  10 6

T  42.51.5 10  42.51.5


0.3  V
NR  6
 2.296  10 6
V 2 
1.3110
e 0.26 5
  8.67  10  0 .00009 61
D 0.3 103
Example 5:cont.
Trial 1
f  0.01 
eq1
V  1.16 m/s
1
0.0135
V2  
eq
 2
N R  2.668 105 f
e
 8.67 10  4 2
N R  2.296 106V 
D
Moody
 f  0.02
Trial 2

f  0.02 
eq1
V  0.82 m/s
eq
 2
N R  1.886 105
e
 8.67 10  4 Another solution?
D
Moody
 f  0.021

V= 0.82 m/s , Q = V*A = 0.058 m3/s


62
Example 6:
Compute the discharge capacity of a 3-m diameter, wood stave
pipe in its best condition carrying water at 10oC. It is allowed to
have a head loss of 2m/km of pipe length.
 Type 2:
Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss flow rate ?

Solution 1:
LV2 2ghf 1/ 2 D 1/ 2
hf  f V     
D 2g  L  f 

 1000  V
2
0.12
2 f  V 
2

 3  2(9.81) f
Table 3.1 : wood stave pipe: e = 0.18 – 0.9 mm, take e = 0.3 mm
e 0.3
  0.0001
D 3
VD 3V
At T= 10oC,  = 1.31x10-6 m2/sec  N R    2.29  10 6
63.V
 1.31  10 6
• Solve by trial and error:
• Iteration 1:
0.12
• Assume f = 0.02  V   V  2.45m / sec
2

0.02
NR  2.29 106.2.45  5.6 106
From moody Diagram: f  0.0122

Iteration 2:
0.12
update f = 0.0122  V2   V  3.14m / sec
0.0122
NR  2.29 106.3.14  7.2 106
From moody Diagram: f  0.0121  0.0122

Iteration f V NR
V2  3.15 m/s
0 0.02 2.45 5.6106   32
1 0.0122 3.14 7.2106 Solution: Q  VA  3.15.
2 0.0121
4
Convergence
 22.27 m3 /s 64
Another solution?
Example 6:Another solution?
Compute the discharge capacity of a 3-m diameter, wood stave pipe in its best
condition carrying water at 10oC. It is allowed to have a head loss of 2m/km
of pipe length.

Type 2: Given the kind and size of pipe and the head loss flow rate ?
Solution 2:
At T= 10oC,  = 1.31x10-6 m2/sec
1/ 2
D  2 ghf
3/ 2
 (3)3 2 2(9.81)(3)
NR f      9.62  105
  L  1.31  10 6 1000
Table 3.1 : wood pipe: e = 0.18 – 0.9 mm, take e = 0.3 mm e  0.3  0.0001
D 3
From moody Diagram: f  0.0121

LV 2
 2 ghf 
1/ 2
 D
1/ 2
  32
hf  f  V       3.15m / sec , Q  VA  3.15.
D 2g  L   f  4
 22.27 m3 /s65
f = 0.0121

66
Problems type III (head loss)

67
Example 7:

68
69
Example 7:cont.

70
Example 8:
Estimate the size of a uniform, horizontal welded-steel pipe installed to carry 14
ft3/sec of water of 70oF (20oC). The allowable pressure loss is 17 ft/mi of
pipe length.
Solution 2:
From Table : Steel pipe: ks = 0.046 mm
Q 
2
LV2  
Darcy-Weisbach: hL  f
D 2g L A  L Q 2 42 1 16fLQ 2
hL  f f 
Q VA D 2g D 2g  2D 4 D 5 2g 2
1/ 5
 8 fLQ 2 
 D 2 
 1
/5  g hL 
 8  f  5280 14  2
D  f 1/ 5  4.33  f 1/ 5 a
 9 . 81   2
 17 
Let D = 2.5 ft, then V = Q/A = 2.85 ft/sec
Now by knowing the relative roughness and the Reynolds number:
e 0.003
  0.0012
D 2.5
We get f =0.021 71
VD 2.85 * 2.5
NR    6.6 *105
 1.08 *10 5
Example 8:cont.
A better estimate of D can be obtained by substituting the latter
values into equation a, which gives

D  4.33  f 1/ 5  4.33 * 0.0211/ 5  2.0 ft

A new iteration provide


V = 4.46 ft/sec
NR = 8.3 x 105
e/D = 0.0015
f = 0.022, and
D = 2.0 ft.
More iterations will produce the same results.

72
73
Example 9:

74
Empirical Formulas 1
• Hazen-Williams
D  5cm    V  3.0m / sec
V  1.318CHW Rh0.63S 0.54 British Units

V  0.85CHW Rh
0.63
S 0.54

wetted A D
Simplified

Rh  hydraulic Radius  
wetted P 4
hf
S
L
CHW  Hazen Will iams Coefficien t
10.7 L
hf  1.852
Q1.852
SI Unit
CHW D 4.87
75
Empirical Formulas 1

76
Empirical Formulas 1
CHW  Hazen Will iams Coefficien t

77
Empirical Formulas 1

78
Empirical Formulas 1

When V  3.0m / sec


0.081
Vo 
CH  C Ho  
V 
Where:
CH = corrected value
CHo = value from table
Vo = velocity at CHo
V = actual velocity

79
Empirical Formulas 2
• This formula has extensively been used for open channel
designs. It is also quite commonly used for pipe flows
• Manning
1 2 / 3 1/ 2 wetted A D
V  Rh S Rh  hydraulic Radius  
n wetted P 4
hf
S
L
Simplified

n  Manning Coefficien t

10.3 L nQ 
2
hf  SI Unit
D 5.33
80
Empirical Formulas 2
1 2/ 3 1/ 2
V  Rh S
n
2
Q
h f  10.3n 2 L 16 / 3
D
L 2 2
h f  6.35 1.33 n V
D

• n = Manning coefficient of roughness (See Table)


• Rh and S are as defined for Hazen-William
formula.

81
Empirical Formulas 2

82
Empirical Formulas 2
n  Manning Coefficien t

83
Empirical Formulas 3
The Chezy Formula

V C 1/ 2
Rh S 1/ 2

2
L V 
hf  4  
DC 

where C = Chezy coefficient

84
Empirical Formulas 3
• It can be shown that this formula, for circular pipes, is
equivalent to Darcy’s formula with the value for
8g
C
f
[f is Darcy Weisbeich coefficient]

• The following formula has been proposed for the value of


C: 0.00155 1
23  
C S n
0.00155 n
1  (23  )
S Rh
[n is the Manning coefficient]

85
Empirical Formulas 4
The Strickler Formula:
V 2/ 3
k str Rh S 1/ 2

2
L  V 
h f  6.35 1.33  
D  k str 

where kstr is known as the Strickler coefficient.

Comparing Manning formula and Strickler formula, we can see that

1
 k str 86
n
Empirical Formulas
Relations between the coefficients in Chezy,
Manning , Darcy , and Strickler formulas.
1
k str 
n

C  kstr R
1/ 6
h

1/ 3
f Rh
n
8g

87
Example 10
New Cast Iron (CHW = 130, n = 0.011) has length = 6 km and diameter =
30cm. Q= 0.32 m3/s, T=30o. Calculate the head loss due to friction
using:

a) Hazen-William Method
10.7 L
hf  1.852
Q1.852

CHW D 4.87
10.7  6000
hf  1.852 4 .87
0.321.852
 333m
130 0.3
b) Manning Method
10.3 L nQ 
2
hf 
D 5.33
10.3  6000 0.011 0.32
2
hf  5 .33
 470 m
0.3 88
Calculation of Head (Energy) Losses

Head Losses in Pipelines

Part B:Minor Losses

89
Minor Losses
• Additional losses due to entries and exits,
fittings and valves are traditionally referred to
as minor losses

V2 Q2
hm  k L  kL 2
2g 2 gA
90
Minor Losses

It is due to the change


of the velocity of the
flowing fluid in the
magnitude or in
direction [turbulence
within bulk flow as it
moves through and
fitting] Flow pattern through a valve

91
Minor Losses
• The minor losses occurs du to :
• Valves
• Tees
• Bends
• Reducers
• Valves
• And other appurtenances
• It has the common form
V2 Q2
hm  k L  kL
2g 2 gA2
“minor” compared to friction losses in long pipelines but,

can be the dominant cause of head loss in shorter pipelines 92


93
Minor Losses
Losses due to contraction
A sudden contraction in a pipe usually causes a marked drop in pressure
in the pipe due to both the increase in velocity and the loss of energy to
turbulence.
Along wall

Along centerline

2
V2
hc  kc 94
2g
Minor Losses
Value of the coefficient Kc for sudden contraction

V2

95
Minor Losses
Head Loss Due to a Sudden Contraction

V 22
hL  K L
2g

2
V2
hL 0.5
2g

96
Minor Losses
Head losses due to pipe contraction may be greatly reduced by
introducing a gradual pipe transition known as a confusor

kc'

2
V2
hc'  kc'
2g

97
Minor Losses
Head Loss Due to Gradual Contraction (reducer
or nozzle)

hL K L
V 2  V1
2 2

2g
a 100 200 300 400
KL 0.2 0.28 0.32 0.35

A different set of data is :

98
Minor Losses
Losses due to Enlargement
A sudden Enlargement in a pipe

(V1  V2 ) 2
hE 
2g

99
Minor Losses
Head losses due to pipe enlargement may be greatly reduced by
introducing a gradual pipe transition known as a diffusor

V  V2
2 2
hE'  k E' 1
2g

100
Minor Losses
Note that the drop in the energy line is much larger than in the case of a contraction

abrupt expansion

gradual expansion

101
smaller head loss than in the case of an abrupt expansion
Minor Losses
Head Loss Due to a Sudden Enlargement

V 12
hL  K L
2g
2
 A1 
KL  1  
 A2 

or :

hL 
V1  V2  2

2g

102
Minor Losses
Head Loss Due to Gradual Enlargement
(conical diffuser)

hL K L
V
1  V2
2 2

2g

a 100 200 300 400

KL 0.39 0.80 1.00 1.06

103
Minor Losses
Gibson tests

104
Minor Losses
Loss due to pipe entrance
General formula for head loss at the entrance of a pipe is also
expressed in term of velocity head of the pipe
2
V
hent  K ent
2g

105
Minor Losses
Different pipe inlets

increasing loss coefficient

106
Minor Losses
Head Loss at the Entrance of a Pipe
(flow leaving a tank)

Reentrant Sharp
(embeded) edge
KL = 0.8 KL = 0.5

Slightly
rounded
Well
KL = 0.2
rounded
KL = 0.04

V2
hL  K L 107
2g
Minor Losses
Another Typical values for various amount of rounding of
the lip

108
Minor Losses
Loss at pipe exit (discharge head loss)
In this case the entire velocity head of the pipe flow is
dissipated and that the discharge loss is
2
V
hexit 
2g

109
Minor Losses
Head Loss at the Exit of a Pipe (flow entering a tank)
KL = 1.0 KL = 1.0

V2
hL 
2g
KL = 1.0 KL = 1.0

the entire kinetic energy of the exiting fluid (velocity V1) is


dissipated through viscous effects as the stream of fluid mixes with
the fluid in the tank and eventually comes to rest (V2 = 0). 110
Minor Losses
Loss of head in pipe bends
V2
hb  kb
2g

111
Minor Losses
Miter bends
For situations in which space is limited,

112
Minor Losses
Loss of head through valves
2
V2
hv  K v
2g

113
Minor Losses

114
Minor Losses
The loss coefficient for elbows, bends, and tees

115
Minor Losses
Loss coefficients for pipe components (Table)

116
Minor loss coefficients (Table)

117
Minor Losses
Minor loss calculation using equivalent
pipe length
kl D
Le 
f

118
Minor Losses

• Note that the above values are average


typical values, actual values will depend on
the make (manufacturer) of the
components.
• See:
– Catalogs
– Hydraulic handbooks !!

119
Minor Losses

Energy and hydraulic grade lines

Unless local effects are of particular interests the changes in the EGL and HGL are
often shown as abrupt changes (even though the loss occurs over some distance) 120
Minor Losses
Example 11
In the figure shown two new cast iron pipes in series, D1 =0.6m ,
D2 =0.4m length of the two pipes is 300m, level at A =80m , Q
= 0.5m3/s (T=10oC).there are a sudden contraction between
Pipe 1 and 2, and Sharp entrance at pipe 1.
Fine the water level at B

e = 0.26mm
v = 1.31×10-6
Q = 0.5 m3/s

121
Minor Losses
Solution
Z A  ZB  hf
hL  h f 1  h f 2  hent  hc  hexit
2 2 2 2
L1 V1 L2 V2 V1 V2 V22
hL  f1  f2  kent  kc  kexit
D1 2 g D2 2 g 2g 2g 2g

Q 0.5 Q 0.5
V1    1.77 m/ sec , V2    3.98 m/ sec ,
A1 π 0.62 A2 π 0.42
4 4
VD VD
Re1  1 1  8.1105 , Re 2  2 2  1.22 106 ,
υ υ
 0.26 
  0.00043,  0.00065,
D1 600 D1
moody
 f1  0.017 moody
 f 2  0.018

122
hent  0.5, hc  0.27, hexit  1
Minor Losses
2 2 2 2
L1 V1 L2 V2 V1 V2 V22
hL  f1  f2  kent  kc  kexit
D1 2 g D2 2 g 2g 2g 2g

 300  1.77  300  3.98


2 2
h f  0.017  .  0.018  .
 0.6  2 g  0.4  2 g
 1.77 2   3.982   3.982 
 0.5   0.27      13.36m
 2g   2g   2g 

ZB = 80 – 13.36 = 66.64 m

123
Minor Losses
Example 12
A pipe enlarge suddenly from D1=240mm to D2=480mm. the
H.G.L rises by 10 cm calculate the flow in the pipe

124
Solution

125
Minor Losses
p1 V12 p2 V22
Solution   z1    z 2  he
g 2 g g 2 g
V12 V22 p   p 
  he   2  z 2    1  z1 
2g 2g  g   g 
V12 V22 V1  V2
 
 2

 0.1
2g 2g 2g

V1 A1  V2 A2
V1 

4 0 .24 
2
 V2 

4 0 .48 2

V1  4V2
16V22 V22 4V2  V2
 
 
2

 0.1
2g 2g 2g
2
6V2
 0. 1
2g
126
V2  0.57 m / s  Q  V2 A2  0.57  4 0.48  0.103m / s  2 3
http://www.haestad.com/library/books/awdm/online/wwhelp/wwhimpl/java/html/wwhelp.htm

127