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# PHRASES AND CLAUSES

GOAL

## The goal that we expect to achieve after

learning types of phrases and clauses is
that we know what is phrases and clauses
and the function of phrases and clauses
itself. Then, after doing some exercise, we
can identify phrase and clause that a
sentence used.
PHRASES

## Phrase is a group of related words that

doesn't have subject and verb. A phrase
usually need some other word to complete
a sentence. According to reference that we
have, there are 7 different kinds of
phrases
Noun Phrase

## • Noun phrase is a noun and all its modifiers (articles,

• Example:
– The main parts of the book include exploratory
data analysis, pattern mining, clustering, and
classification.
– Data mining is the process of discovering insightful,
interesting, and novel patterns, as well as
descriptive, understandable, and predictive models
from large-scale data.
Verb Phrase
• Verb phrase is the parts of the verb that function as the
grammatical verb of an independent or dependent
clause.
• Example:
– The mean of the centered data matrix Z is 0∈Rd ,
because we have subtracted the meanμfrom all the
points xi.
Prepositional Phrase

## • Prepositional phrase is a phrase made up

of a preposition, and the phrase or clause
that acts as its object.
• Example:
– Often in data mining we need to project a
point or vector onto another vector, for
example, to obtain a new point after a change
of the basis vectors.
Infinitive Phrase

## • An infinitive is a phrase in its own right: to plus a

verb. However, an infinitive phrase can also be
the infinitive plus any phrase or clause
associated with it.
• Example:
– If the vectors in the basis are pairwise orthogonal,
they are said to form an orthogonal basis for S.
Gerund Phrase

## • A gerund phrase is the gerund plus any

phrase or clause associated with it.
• Example:
– Next, we center the dataset by subtracting
the mean value from each attribute.
Appositive
• An appositive is a noun phrase along with any phraes or
clauses associated with it, the composite of which
renames a noun or pronoun.
• Example:
– A d-dimensional multivariate random variable
X=(X1,X2,...,Xd)T, also called a vector random
variable, is defined as a function that assigns a
vector of real numbers to each outcome in the sample
space,
Participial Phrase

## • A participial is an -ing or -ed form of a verb

and not functioning as a noun. Instead, it
and the phrases or clauses associated
with it function as a modifier in a sentence.
• Example:
– It is a soft clustering approach, that is,
instead of making a hard assignment, it
returned the probability that a point belongs
to each cluster.
CLAUSES

## Clause is a group of words that contains

the elements of a complete sentence—
specifically, sometimes act as a subject
and sometimes act as a verb. The two
basic categories of clauses are
independent clauses and dependent
clauses.
Dependent Clause
• Dependent clause is almost a complete
sentence—something about the subject or the
verb is not complete. Dependent clauses cannot
stand on their own as complete sentences.
There are 3 different kinds of depedent clause
• Example for dependent clause:
– We also show how kernel K-means can be
used for nonlinear clusters.
The underlined dependent clause contains
still another dependent clause within it: how
kernel K-means can be used
Adjective clause is a dependent clause that
functions as an adjective and modifies a noun or
pronoun. In other words, it adds extra
information about that noun or pronoun.
Example: From the itemsets plotted in Figure
12.2, using minsup(X) ≥ 15 (which
corresponds to a relative support of
10%) and retaining only those itemsets
with an average lift value of at least
2.5, we retain 37 class-specific
itemsets.
Adverb clause is a dependent clause that
functions as an adverb and modifies a
Example: White points indicate a wrong
grouping when compared to the
known Iris types.
• Noun Clause
Noun clause is a dependent clause that
functions as a noun in a sentence. Noun
clauses can act as subjects, direct objects,
and objects of prepositions.
Example: Kernel K-means stops when the
fraction of points with new
cluster assignments falls below
some threshold ǫ ≥ 0.
Independent Clause

## • Independent clause is a complete

sentence. Although the sentence is short,
its still a complete sentence and can stand
on their own as a complete sentence. A
sentence that consist of 1 independent
clause is called simple sentence. An
independent clause can be combined with
another independent clause to make a
compound sentence.
• Example for Independent clause:
– The Jaccard coefficient measures the
similarity between two sets.
EXERCISES

## • The goal is to find the clustering that minimizes the

SSE score.
From the sentence above, which one is noun phrase?
• Assume for the moment that all points xi ∈ D have
been mapped to their corresponding images φ(xi ) in
feature space.
From the sentence above, which one is verb phrase?
• The variance can be expressed compactly in terms
of the dot product between the weight vector and the
squared centered vector.
From the sentence above, which one is prepositional
phrase?
• The main parts of the book include
exploratory data analysis, pattern
mining, clustering, and classification.
• Show the cluster merge order in the
tree, stopping when you have k = 4
clusters.
Thank You