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JIHAR STAGE-3 PROJECT

MODULE 18 - DESIGN HSE

GENERAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY PRACTICES


HSE OVERVIEW

What is HSE mission?

HSE mission is the management of


“Health” , ”Safety” and “Environmental”
risk components of
• Design
• Procurement
• Construction
• Commissioning and
• Start-up

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HSE OVERVIEW

What is HSE Objective?

• Manage Hazards and Risks


• Apply Standards & Procedures
• Manage subcontracts and external relationship
• Encourage positive behavior
• Manage incident response
• Audits and Reviews

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HSE OVERVIEW

Roles and Responsibilities within HSE?

1) Those concerned with design, safe operation and


maintenance of plant i.e. Engineering Phase (Design HSE)

2) Those related to health & safety of personnel involved in


construction, installation & commissioning of plant
(Construction HSE)

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DESIGN HSE

What is Hazard?

A hazard may be defined as that which has the potential to cause:

- Personnel injury or fatality or


- lost time or,
- Asset damage or loss or,
- Major environmental damage or
- Loss of Production.

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DESIGN HSE
Samples for Hazard sources

Following sources are samples of hazard that can create hazardous


situations to personnel, environment and facility assets:
- High pressure hydrocarbon handling equipments
- Ignition sources
- Hazardous Chemicals
- Hot surfaces
- High voltage sources
- Noise emitting Sources
- Corrosion and Erosion
- Human Errors
- Operation Errors
- Control System Errors
- External Events

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DESIGN HSE

What are Principles of SAFE DESIGN?

- Protection of personnel

- Minimization of potential pollution to the environment

- Protection of the equipment and facility, and

- Maintenance of safe operation compatible with the production


requirements

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DESIGN HSE

What are Assessment Tools to Safe Design?

- Layout Review;
- Hazard Identification (HAZID) Study;
- Hazard and Operability Review (HAZOP);
- SIL Study;
- Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) ;
- Flare Radiation and Dispersion.

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
Layout Review Workshop
While reviewing the layout, the locations were selected with an emphasis on
achieving inherent safety and minimal impact on the environment. During the
location, orientation and development of each site layout, the following points were
incorporated:

-Open layouts with sufficient spacing of equipment;


-Personnel areas, either continuously manned or leisure areas, are adequately protected against
gas ingress, blast overpressures and heat radiation;
-Segregation of the plant into hazardous and non-hazardous areas;
-Offloading facilities (e.g. road tanker offloading) do not cause a hazard to impinge on the
installations;
-Account for the location of flare and the location and size of the associated sterile area (if any) so
that there is minimal interference or hazard;
-Access, spaces and lay down areas allow for efficient operation/maintenance and,
-Minimum separation distances from any bulk storage of hydrocarbon to be in accordance with
project requirements.
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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
HAZID Workshop
HAZID Objective

Identify the hazards and threats and avoid the design


progressing with risks that would be expensive to manage if
not eliminated or controlled during the early design stage

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
HAZID Workshop
HAZID Flow

Select Plant AREA or NODE & Section, IDENTIFY


Select CATEGORY, Discuss and agree INTENT

HAZARD
GUIDE WORD IS IT POSSIBLE
IS IT LIKELY ?

NO YES

BRAINSTORM
THREATS & CAUSES

ASSESS

CONTROLS
WHAT BARRIERS OR CONTROLS
ARE REQUIRED TO PREVENT OR
CONTROL THE EFFECT?

The HAZID
Process

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
HAZID Workshop
HAZID Steps

1)Select the area, system or process to be considered


2)Identify hazard or accident event
3)Is the Scenario credible?

4)Assessment of probable causes and consequences


Identify prevention, control or mitigating measures

5)Record the minutes of discussion on reporting sheet along with comments or


recommendations.
Any further scenarios to consider?
(Same hazard guideword).
All guidewords considered?
Go to next area, system or process.

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
HAZID Workshop
Sample HAZID Worksheet
Action No.

Sl.
HAZARD CAUSES CONSEQUENCES MITIGATION METHODS / SAFEGUARDS ACTIONS ACTION BY
No.

Typical Layout Vulnerability –Vehicle Potential for equipment Bollard protection for road side 15 To be reviewed and verified during 3-D model review. Piping
Hazards Impacts damage and consequential Hydrants/monitors
hazard arising from impacts 16 Vehicle access movements to be reviewed and verified for Construction/Civil
during maintenance work etc. Vehicle access movements reviewed adequacy
during layout review and verified for
adequacy

Typical Layout Effects of flare radiation Impact on personnel and Flare radiation study 17 Flare radiation study to be developed HSE
Hazards equipment.
PPE

HPC Procedures

Fire & Explosion Fire protection and Potential for leading Fire an gas Alarm system 25 Ensure minimum 2 diverse escape paths from each location in HSE
Hazards response personnel into fire or the process area.
flammable cloud Escape routes

Fire fighting facilities.

Automatic deluge system for high


hazard process equipments.

Environmental Waste disposal options Liquid and solid wastes during 40 Emission and waste inventory to be reported HSE /HPC
operations within the Syrian regulatory
limits. 41 HPC to develop waste management plan HPC

Emission/waste inventory report

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
HAZOP Workshop
HAZOP Objective

Systematically examine the process or operation in order to


identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to
personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation.

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
HAZOP Workshop
HAZOP Flow

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
HAZOP Workshop
HAZOP Steps

1)Define the design intent and normal operating conditions

2)Identify a deviation from design intent or operating conditions by applying a system of


parameters and guidewords.[flow, pressure and temperature) and guide words (no, more, less)]
3)Identify possible causes for, and consequences of, the deviation.

4)For a meaningful deviation, identify safeguards, if any, already provided

5)Decide what action is necessary by considering new safeguards

6)Record the HAZOP Review and recommendations proposed.

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
HAZOP Workshop
Sample HAZOP Worksheet

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
SIL Study
SIL Objective

Assess the integrity level for all instrumented protection


functions that have been provided for all process system.

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
SIL Study
SIL Study Steps

1)SIL ASSESSMENT:
Identify the adequacy of protection of Safety Instrumented Functions (SIF).
In Jihar project LOPA (Level of Protection Analysis) was used.

2)SIL Verification
The risk reduction performance of any given SIF depends on the equipment chosen and the
redundancy levels. and requires reliability analysis of the equipment with a view toward a
particular failure mode.

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
Quantitative Risk Assessment Study
QRA Objectives

1)To estimate the risk levels associated with the development


of the facility in order to demonstrate that the Risk
Acceptance Criteria are met.

2) To provide risk reduction recommendations.

3)To demonstrate that risks are As Low As Reasonably


Practicable (ALARP).

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
Quantitative Risk Assessment Study
Definitions

The terms 'probability', 'likelihood' and 'frequency' are often


used interchangeably and indicate the possibility of
something happening

frequency is a rate, e.g. number of incidents per hour

‘Risk’ is the product of the probability that a specified


undesired event will occur and the severity of the
consequences of the event

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
Quantitative Risk Assessment Study
QRA Flow The QRA Process
PROJECT/ACTIVITY/OPTION
UNDER ASSESSMENT
INPUT

IDENTIFY Hazards and


Potential Hazardous Events
INPUT

Analysis of Hazardous Events

LIKELIHOOD CONSEQUENCE LIKELIHOOD


per (Including escalation of
event scenarios) exposure

Risk from Hazardous Events


INPUT

OVERALL RISK to
• People (PLL, IRPA)
• Assets (potential cost)
• Environment (potential impact)
ASSESS RISKS
INPUT

• Risk reduction
• Option selection
Re-assess based
• Change decision on any changes
• Emergency response
• HSE Case, etc.

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
Quantitative Risk Assessment Study
Sample Risk Contour

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
Flare Radiation and Dispersion Study
Flare Functions and Effects

The purpose of the flare system is to provide safe and


effective disposal of flammable gas and inventory from the
process equipment in case of over pressure or other
process upsets.

During Flaring, following effects can be experienced:


1)Radiation Effect
2)Flammable and Toxic gas Dispersion

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
Flare Radiation and Dispersion Study
Objective of Flare Radiation and Dispersion Study

The objective of flare radiation and dispersion study is to


evaluate and conclude that the radiation and concentration
levels at grade and specific location are within specified
limits when flaring to its maximum design capacities.

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
Flare Radiation and Dispersion Study
Sample Radiation Contour

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DESIGN HSE – Assessment Tools
Flare Radiation and Dispersion Study
Sample Dispersion Contour

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DESIGN HSE

What are the Mitigation Measures to Safe Design?

- Emergency Shut Down (ESD) System;


- Drainage System;
- Hazardous Area Classification;
- Passive Fire Protection;
- Active Fire protection;
- Fire & Gas Detection Systems;
- Emergency Lighting System;
- Emergency Escape Route and,
- Personal Protection and Safety Equipments.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Emergency Shut Down System
Function of ESD

- Sectionalize the facilities to limit the quantity of material released on loss


of containment and to limit the duration of an incident.
- Where appropriate, initiate closing of isolation valves; blow down of
inventory and depressurization of equipment.
- Initiate actions in utility systems to mitigate hazardous events.
- Initiate shutdown of potential ignition sources (e.g. Fired units, non-
essential electrical equipment).
- All shutdown functions will be carried out by the ESD system, in
accordance with the Philosophy for Instrument/Control and Fire and Gas
Detection. (Refer module M16)

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Drainage System
Function of Drainage

- Cater for accidentally spilled flammable liquids

- Provide a route for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of


liquid inventory

- Handle surface water run-off from paved areas only

- Open drain and closed drains are completely segregated.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Hazardous Area Classification
Purpose
- To avoid ignition of those releases that may occur from time to time in the
operation of facilities handling flammable liquids and vapors.

- To decide appropriate selection and installation of ignition sources like


electrical motors, junction boxes, lighting poles, electrical panels,
instrumentation etc. suitable for hazardous environment where they are
located.

The IP-15 has been used for hazardous area classification in Jihar stage-3
project.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Hazardous Area Classification
Approach

The approach is to reduce the probability of coincidence of


flammable atmosphere and an electrical or other source of
ignitions to an acceptable minimum level.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Hazardous Area Classification
Definition

A 3-dimensional space in which a flammable atmosphere


may be expected to be present at such frequencies as to
require special precautions for the design and construction
of equipment, and the control of other potential ignition
sources.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Hazardous Area Classification
Hazardous Area Classification Schedule
- Equipment Name/Source of Flammable Fluid
- Handled fluid or Stream Number based on PFD
- Operating Pressure and Temperature
- Flash Point of Handled Fluid
- Boiling Point of Handled Fluid \\fil012aaashjuae\
JI-191\HSE\HAZARDOUS A

- Apparatus Gas Group and Temperature Class


- Source of Release
- Grade of Release
- Type of Area(Open/Confined)
- Ventilation Type
- Type of Zone
- Size of Zone

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Hazardous Area Classification
Hazardous Area Classification Layouts

Hazardous area classification layouts illustrate and reflect the


zones around each source on the plot plans as listed in
hazardous area classification schedule.

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JI-191\HSE\HAZARDOUS A JI-191\HSE\HAZARDOUS A

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Passive Fire Protection
Purpose

- Aim of the fire proofing is to limit the extent of fire related property loss
because steel loses its strength and load bearing capability rapidly when
at about 500°C.

- Where structural steel work supporting equipment may be exposed to


severe fire condition, it shall require protection to maintain its load bearing
capability. This protection shall be achieved by coating the steel work with
an appropriate thermally insulating (fire proofing) material.

API-2218 has been followed in Jihar Stage-3 facilities design.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Passive Fire Protection
Approach
- Hazard Evaluation: including quantification of inventories of potential
fuels.

- Development of fire Scenario: including potential release rate and.

- Determining the dimensions of fire scenario envelope.

- Determining fire proofing needs based on the potential impact of the fire.

- Choosing the level of protection based on appropriate standard test


procedures.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Passive Fire Protection
Typical Detail and Layout

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JI-191\HSE\FIRE PROOFI JI-191\HSE\FIRE PROOFI

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Active Fire Protection
Purpose

The purpose of the active fire fighting is to provide quick and


reliable means for control and extinguish accidental small or
large fires and protect adjacent exposed facilities with no
loss of life and minimum loss of assets.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Active Fire Protection
Appropriate Active Fire Protection

In selection of appropriate fire protection system, following aspects of fire


incidents where considered:

- Nature of Fire (Size, Shape and Source of Fire)


- Class of Fire (A, B, C or D)
- Fire Fighting Agents (Water, Foam, Dry Powder etc.)

Fixed Fire Water System is covered in Module-19

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Active Fire Protection
Portable and Mobile Fire Fighting Systems
Portable and Mobile firefighting equipments are provided in process and
utility areas and buildings:

Mobile ABC dry chemical extinguishers at locations where hydrocarbon


spill fires can occur but other fire hazards also exist.
Portable ABC dry chemical extinguishers at locations where process
equipment contain hydrocarbon liquids or gases and chances of small
spill fires exist
Portable CO2 extinguishers at locations where class C (Electrical Fires)
exists or equipment would be damaged by water/foam or dry chemical
agent.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Fire & Gas System
Necessity

A fire and/or gas (flammable, toxic etc.) release hazard is an


inherent part of an oil & gas installation, and should be
minimized to the lowest level practicable for maximum
safeguarding of personnel, capital investment and the
environment, in the case of such an event occurring.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Fire & Gas System
Function

- Detecting fire and/or gas leaks;

- Initiating the appropriate process shutdown and depressurizing System;

- Initiating the appropriate active fire protection system and,

- Alerting the plant personnel.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Fire & Gas System
Fire & Gas Detection Devices for Process Area

- Flame Detectors (UV/IR type) – Flame Detectors were installed in outdoor


locations where there is possibility of open flame
- Point Type Flammable hydrocarbon gas detectors – installed near sources
of flammable gas leakage in voting arrangement
- Line-of-sight Flammable hydrocarbon gas detectors – installed in open
areas at the boundary of fire zones to detect the traveling of flammable
gases
- Linear Heat Sensing Cable Detectors – installed in open areas where heat
dissipating is first sign of a fire such as oil tanks, transformers
- Manual Alarm Call (MAC) point – installed all around the plant

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Fire & Gas System
Fire & Gas Detection Devices for Buildings
- Optical Type Smoke detectors – installed in closed areas where smoldering
or smoky fires are probable.
- High Sensitivity Smoke Detection System – installed in places where early
detection of a flameless fire is desirable
- Beam Type Smoke detector – installed in closed areas such as warehouses
where false alarm due to exhaust fumes from fork lift or other trucks are
likely
- Point Type Heat Detectors – installed in closed or semi enclosed areas
where occurrence of fires with drastic change in temperature is more likely
such as pantries transformer shelters
- Manual Alarm Call (MAC) point – installed in all buildings

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Fire & Gas System
Alarm Devices
- Audible Alarm - installed all around the plant in open or closed areas to
warn the personnel from a hazardous situation

- Visual Alarm - installed all around the plant in noisy open or closed areas
to warn the personnel from a hazardous situation

- Site Siren- installed only in GTP to conveying a specific signal message to


all plant personnel

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Fire & Gas System
Voting Logic
To avoid spurious and unwanted shut downs and alarm conditions,
following voting logics were introduced to Fire and Gas Detection system:

Point Source Gas Detectors, the voting strategy will be as follows:


1 out of n (20% LEL) is Pre-alarm
1 out of n (60% LEL) is Pre-alarm
2 out of n (60% LEL) is Trip-alarm
Flame Detectors
1 out of n is Pre Alarm
2 out of n is Confirmed Alarm

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Emergency Lighting System
Purpose

Emergency lighting is provided to ensure the personnel safety and escape


during a power failure and allow limited operations to be carried out by
plat personnel attempting to restore power.
It will be supplied from GTG during normal operation and from Diesel
Generator when main power fails.
Emergency lightings are provided as under:

- Escape lighting with a minimum illumination level of 1 Lux.


- 30% of MCC building and Control room building fixtures.
- 30% Outdoor lighting outside building.

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Emergency Escape Route
Purpose Requirements
The purpose of escape route is to ensure that in case of an emergency all
plant personnel are able to escape the plant premises and reach a place of
safety (Muster Area) from the hazardous situations with no or minimum
injuries.
Requirements

- Two separate, diverse, readily accessible and unobstructed route


- Primary escape rote with minimum 1m width and 2.1m head clearance
- Safety equipment and escape route layout has been prepared to ensure the
above mentioned requirement.
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JI-191\HSE\FIRE PROTEC JI-191\HSE\FIRE PROTEC

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DESIGN HSE – Mitigation Measures
Personal Protection and Safety Equipments
Purpose Requirements
Following personal protection and safety equipments are provided for Jihar
project facilities:
- Safety Shower and Eyewash where there is a risk of exposure to
hazardous chemicals (i.e. near chemical injection skids)
- Eyewash units where there is a risk of exposure to Acids (i.e. in battery
rooms)
- Breathing Apparatus
- First Aid Kits
- Stretchers
- Fire Blankets
- Ear Defenders
- Safety Signs (throughout the plant)
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CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION HSE
House Keeping
Fire or explosion may represent the greatest potential hazard to plant and
personnel in general, but it must be remembered that many accidents are
caused by untidiness of the plant site.
Removing trash & rubbish
Cleaning Spilled material and oil
Start good house keeping from beginning
Keeping the control room clean
Cleaning the Paved area and access ways and removing loose items
Keep pump drain basin and pipe trenches clean
Keep all tools in their place and in good condition
Clean the area and equipment after maintenance
The use of light Naphtha, Solvents, or Gasoline for washing hands and clothing is
prohibited.

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CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION HSE
Handling of Chemicals
Following chemical handling units are installed in Jihar GTP, Jihar SGS and
Al-Mahr SGS areas:
Methanol Injection Skid
Corrosion inhibitor Injection Skid
Demulsifier Injection Skid
Oxygen Scavenger Skid
LPG Odorizer Skid
Mentioned chemicals can cause following health problems to operators:
Irritation of mucous membrane, nausea, headache, dizziness and
unconsciousness even can be fatal
Skin irritation
Eyes irritation, and even temporary or permanent blindness
Ingestion can cause mucosal damage, vomiting, headaches, dizziness and
gastrointestinal irritation and even can be fatal.

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CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION HSE
Handling of Chemicals
What to do?

In case of exposure to any of mentioned chemicals by


inhalation, ingestion, eye or skin contact, follow first aid
instructions provided in MSDS for the particular chemical
and seek advice from trained personnel and medical
advisors.

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CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION HSE
Other Potential Hazards
Following hazards are typical in process units:

Heat Burns (Sources with radiation effect, Hot Surfaces)

Cold Burns (Propane package)

Electrocution (Live Electrical Items)

Working maintenance hazards

 Moving Machinery (moving part, shaft, pump couplings, etc.)


 Purging (Flammable mixtures during purging)
 Re-commissioning (excessive pressure)
 Working at height (Use ladders and scaffolds)

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THANKS

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