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References

 Allan Affuah & Christopher Tucci, Internet Business Models


and Strategies
 Feather, Frank (2000), Future Consumer.com; the Webolution
of Shopping to 2010, Warwick Publishing, Toronto
 Kenneth Laudon & Jane Laudon, Essentials of Management
Information Systems
 Kountur, Ronny (1996), Dasar-Dasar Sistem Informasi
Manajemen, Dinastindo, Jakarta
 McLeod, Raymond Jr. (1995), Management Information
Systems: A Study of Computer-Based Information Systems,
Prentice Hall International, New Jersey
 T. Lucey, Management Information Systems
 Turban, E. (2002), Electronic Commerce 2002: A Managerial
Perspective (2nd Edition)
 Internet
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E
Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell

Chapter 1
Introduction to the Computer-Based
Information System

1-2
Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Information Management

Information:
The most valuable resource

1-3
Five Main Resources

 Personnel
 Material
 Machines


– (including facilities and energy)

Money
} Physical

 Information (and data) } Conceptual

1-4
How Resources are Managed

 Diperoleh
 Dirangkai
 Digunakan secara maksimal
 Diganti
 Disimpan
 Dihancurkan

1-5
Factors Stimulating Interest in
Information Management
 Increasing complexity of business activity
– Ekonomi internasional
– Kompetisi global
– Kemajuan iptek
– Batasan sosial
 Improved computer capabilities
– Size
– Speed

1-6
Who are the Users?

 Manajer
 Non manajer
 Individu & organisasi dalam suatu
lingkungan perusahaan

1-7
The Influence of Management
Level on Information Source

Strategic planning level Environmental

Management control level

Operational control level Internal

1-8
The Influence of Management
Level on Information Form

Strategic planning level Summary

Management control level

Operational control level Detail

1-9
Managers Can Be Found on All
Levels and in All Functional
Areas of the Firm
Strategic planning level

Management Control Level

Operational Control
Level

Finance Human Information Manufacturing Marketing


Function Resources Services Function Function
Function Function
1-10
What Managers do --
Fayol’s Functions
Strategic Management Operational
Planning Level Control Level Control Level

Plan Organize Direct


Direct Plan Control
Control
Staff Staff Staff
Control Organize
Organize Direct Plan

1-11
What Managers do --
Mintzberg’s Roles
 Interpersonal roles  Decisional roles
– Figurehead – Entrepreneur
– Leader – Disturbance
– Liaison handler
 Informational roles – Resource allocator
– Monitor – Negotiator
– Disseminator
– Spokesperson

1-12
Management Skills

}
 Communications
How can an
information
 Problem solving specialist help?

1-13
Computer Reports
Noncomputer reports

Letters & Memos

Electronic mail
Periodicals Written Media
Internal Sources

Scheduled Meetings

Problem Solving
Unscheduled Meetings

Telephone

Voice Mail
Oral Media
Comes in Many Forms

Tours
External Sources

Business Meals
Problem Solving Information

1-14
Management Knowledge

 Computer literacy

 Information literacy

 What’s the difference?

1-15
Computer Literacy

 Pengetahuan tentang komputer


 Memahami terminologi komputer
 Mengenal keunggulan dan kelemahan
komputer
 Mampu menggunakan komputer
Information Literacy

 Kelanjutan pengetahuan tentang komputer


 Harus dimiliki oleh manajer modern
 Meliputi:
– Pemahaman untuk menggunakan komputer
pada setiap langkah dalam proses penyelesaian
masalah
– Di mana informasi dapat diperoleh?
System Components
Component parts of a system that can
control its own operations

Objectives

Control
mechanism

Input Transformation Output

1-18
Open-Loop System

Input Transformation Output

1-19
Open versus Closed Systems

 Open system
– Connected to its environment by means of
resource flows
 Closed system
– Not connected to its environment

1-20
Systems
Can Be Composed of Subsystems or Elemental Parts
System

Subsystem A Subsystem B Elemental


Part C

Subsystem A-1 Subsystem B-1

Subsystem A-2 Subsystem B-2

Elemental
Subsystem A-3
part B1 1-21
Physical and Conceptual Systems

 Physical system
– The business firm
– Composed of physical resources
 Conceptual system
– Represents a physical system
– Uses conceptual resources
» Information
» Data

1-22
A Systems View

 Aktivitas bisnis tidak dapat dilepaskan dari latar


lingkungan yang lebih besar
– Kurangi kompleksitas
– Memerlukan sasaran yang baik
– Menekankan kerja sama
– Menyadari adanya interkoneksi
– Umpan balik nilai-nilai

1-23
Data and Information

 Information processor
– Key element in the conceptual system
– Computer
– Noncomputer
– Combination
 Data is the raw material transformed into
information

1-24
The CBIS Model
Computer-based
Information System
(CBIS)

Problem Accounting
Information System

Information Management
Decisions Information System

Decision Support
Systems

Problem
The Virtual
Solution Office

Knowledge-based
Systems 1-25
Information Services

Information specialists have


full-time responsibility for
developing and maintaining
computer-based systems

1-26
Traditional Communication Chain
Database
Administrator

Systems Operator
User Analyst
Programmer Computer

Network
Specialist

1-27
End-User Computing (EUC)

 End-user computing
– Development of all or part of applications
– Information specialists act as consultants
 Stimulants to EUC
– Increased computer literacy
– IS backlog
– Low-cost hardware (the PC)
– Prewritten software (electronic spreadsheets)

1-28
IS and EUC
The End-User Computing Communication
Chain

Information
Specialists

Support

Communication

User Computer
1-29
Justifying the CBIS

 Investasi besar
 Economic
– Pengurangan biaya
– Peningkatan produktivitas
 Noneconomic
– Pencapaian nilai

1-30
Achieving the CBIS

1-31
Reengineering the CBIS

 Business Process Reengineering (BPR)


– Reworking systems
– Good system features retained
– Becoming development methodology of choice

1-32
Roles Played by the Manager
and by the Information Specialist
Phase Manager Information Specialist

Planning Define problem Support

Analysis Control System Study

Design Control Design system

Implementation Control Implement system

Use Control Make available

1-33
Summary

 Information is one of five main resources


 Computer output used by managers and
nonmanagers
 A system is an integration of elements
working toward an objective
– Physical
– Conceptual
 Data vs. Information
1-34
Summary [cont.]

 CBIS composed of various components


– AIS
– MIS
– DSS
– Virtual office
– Knowledge-based systems
 End-user computing trends
 CBIS development

1-35