Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

1

AIR POLLUTION
2

INTRODUCTION
 “Air Pollution” can be defined as the presence
in the atmosphere of one or more contaminants
(pollutants) in such quantities and of such
duration as may be injurious to human, plant, or
animal life, or to property, or which may
unreasonably interfere with the comfortable
enjoyment of life or property.
3

 Air pollutants can be categorized from several

perspectives including,
 Types of source
 Frequency of occurrence
 Spatial distribution
 Types of emission
4

SOURCES
 Natural sources - Plant pollens,
Wind blown dust
Volcanic eruptions
Lightning generated forest fires.

 Man made sources - Transportation Vehicles


Industrial process
Power plants
Construction activities
Military training activities
Classification of pollutants
Primary pollutants
Emitted directly from sources
Contributes to about 90% of global air pollution
Burning of wood, coal, automobile exhaust

5
Important primary pollutants :
 Oxides of sulphur (SO2)
 Oxides of carbon (CO)
 Oxides of nitrogen (NO2)
 Volatile organic compounds
 Suspended particulate matter

 Hydrogen flouride
 Hydrogen sulphide

6
Secondary pollutants
• primary pollutants react with one another/with water
aided by sunlight
• chemical substance produced from the chemical
reactions of natural/man made pollutants or due to their
oxidation
• more harmful than primary pollutants

7
Important secondary pollutants

Sulphuric acid
Ozone
Formaldehydes
peroxy- acyl nitrate

Sulphuric acid – sulphur dioxide + water


>>> ACID RAIN

Others formed by photochemical reactions

8
>Irritant gas
>Affects mucous membrane
>Increases breathing rate and
causes oxygen deficits in body
leading to bronchial spasms
>Badly affects patients of asthma
>Responsible for causing acidity in fogs,
smokes, and in rains
>Hence major source of corrosion

9
Refineries
Chemical plants
Smelting operations
Burning of fossil fuels
Thermal power plants
Open burning of garbage
Municipal incineration plants

10
INDIAN AMBIENT AIR
QUALITY STANDARD

Permissible max annual average concentration of sulphur


dioxide 50ꭎg/cub.metres

11
>Colourless, odourless, toxic gas
>Produced from incomplete burning
of natural gas,coal,wood
>Poorly maintained vehicles,inefficient
engines,without adequate Pollution control
devices

12
CO inhalation impairs normal oxygen transport in blood

Low level inhalation


>headache
>dizziness
>reduction in reaction time

Higher level inhalation


>difficulty in breathing
>nausea
> heart palpitations

13
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD

Max permissible conc of CO on hourly weighted


average
4mg/cub.metres

14
Atmosphere Nitrogen + oxygen
( high temperature)= NO
At very low levels harmless
At very high leads to death

NO+oxygen = NO2
Harmful compound for human health
Eye and nasal irritations
Respiratory discomforts

Prolonged exposure leads to


Emphysema(swelling due to air in body tissues)
Increased susceptibility to pnuemonia
15 Lung cancer
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD

Max average annual conc for oxides of nitrogenfor


residential areas
40ꭎg/cub.metres

16
17

REFERENCES
 CPCB ,”National Ambient Air Quality Standards,2009”, CPCB, MoEF.

http://www.cpcb.nic.in/

 Larry W Canter “Environmental impact Assessment”,McGrAW-Hill

International Editions, Second Edition, pp: 145-185

 M N Rao, H V N Rao, “ Air Pollution”, McGraw Hill Education(I) Pvt,

Ltd, New Delhi, pp-1-13,43-70.

 http://www.ac.in > IIT-Delhi > Air Pollution