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Preparing

and Implementing
Research Instruments
Research Instrument
• Is a tool used to gather data on specific topic of
interest.
▫ Valid – it directly answers or addresses your
research questions
▫ Reliable – it provides consistent and stable over a
period of time
Guidelines in Preparing an Instrument
• Do a preliminary research by visiting your
library or checking online sources.
• Talk to a knowledgeable person
• Master the guidelines in preparing each type of
instrument
• Clarify your research questions
• Based on the data you need, decide on the
number of people whom you want as respondnts
or participants.
Guidelines in Preparing an Instrument
• Prepare the instrument using the appropriate
format. Get model instruments. Go to Google
Scholar.
• Edit your instrument.
• Conduct pilot testing.
TYPES OF INSTRUMENT
1. Survey – contains planned questions which are
to measure attitudes, perceptions, and
opinions.
- It can be in a form of interview or
questionnaire.
- Types of questions: recall, recognition,
and open-ended.
TYPES OF INSTRUMENT
2. Interview – allows the researcher to
qualitatively gather data.
- responses are usually open-ended.

Different stages:
1. Pre-interview stage – interview guide is prepared and
respondents are identified and and contacted.
2. Warm-up stage – initial part of questioning to the
respondents
TYPES OF INSTRUMENT
3. Main interview stage – main questions are
asked related to the research questions.

4. Closing stage – Respondents are ackownledged


and thanked.
TYPES OF INSTRUMENT
3. Questionnaire - it lists questions to get specific
information.
Parts of Questionnaire
1. Personal information section – personal
information
2. Basic questions section – establish if the person is
right for the study and establish rapport with the
interviewees.
3. Main questions – related to your research.
4. Open-ended questions – brief explanation or
response to an open-ended questions.
TYPES OF INSTRUMENT
4. Observation – allows the description of
behavior in a naturalistic or laboratory setting.
Types of observation:
• Participant and Non-participant Observation-
interacts with the subjects; without interacting
with subjects (resp.*)
• Structured and Unstructured Observation – has
a list of behaviors to observe; allows behaviors
to emerge.
TYPES OF INSTRUMENT
• Covert and Overt Observation – subjects are not
aware that they are being observed; subjects are
aware that they are being observed.
TYPES OF INSTRUMENT
5. Experiment – a procedure undertaken
scientifically and systematically to make a
discovery and to test hypothesis.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
Instrument Advantages Disadvantages
Observation -Provides direct access to a -Provides no control for
phenomenon situation
-Applicable to a wide range of -May be biased
contexts -Does not provide data
-Complements other for a more stable
instruments conclusion
-Time consuming
-May influence data
because of observer’s
effects
Experiment -Provides control of situation -May result in an
and variables artificial situation
-Establishes cause and effect -Prone to
-Can be replicated experimenter’s effects
-Yields quantitative data that
can be statistically analyzed
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
Instrument Advantages Disadvantages
Questionnaire -Least expensive -Has the lowest
-Least time consuming response rate
-Flexible in terms of -Does not generally
administration (online or provide opportunity for
offline) respondents to clarify
-May generate more consistent questions/items
responses -Requires participants
-Easier to analyze data to read and write
-Involves more number of
participants
Interview -High response rate -time-consuming
-Allows probing -Expensive
-Can clarify items to be asked -Difficult to analyze
-Does not require participants data
to read and write lengthily -Requires transcription
-Can address complex
questions
Preparing
and Interpreting Tables,
Graphs and Figures
How to interpret visuals?

1. Read the title and subtitle.


2. Read the captions, keys, and labels.
3. Determine the purpose of the material.
4. Identify the organization of information.
5. Analyze the relationship of details such as
changes and trends.
6. Make a conclusion about the data, if necessary.
CHARTS

Is a graphical representation of data using


symbols that are usually boxes, lines and
arrows.
To show ranks, levels, procedures, and
classifications.

Common charts:
- Organizational Chart
- Flow chart
Organizational Chart

-Presents rankings,
classification, and
levels of ideas.

Reminders:
• rectangles – used
for all positions
•Solid lines – direct
relationship
•Dotted lines –
indirect relationship
Flow Chart

- Illustrates a process
or directions of steps.

Legend:
• Rectangle – steps or
actions taken
• Diamond- decision
point (yes/no)
• Rounded box –
denotes the start and
end of the whole
process
TABLES

- Useful in displaying numbers in columns

- Make comparisons between and among data


and helps the readers grasp relationship that
might be invisible in prose.

- Contains headings on the sides (boxhead) and


at the top of the column (stub) to indicate what
the table represents.
TABLES

- Useful in displaying numbers in


columns
- Make comparisons between and among
data and helps the readers grasp
relationship that might be invisible in
prose.
- Contains headings on the sides
(boxhead) and at the top of the column
(stub) to indicate what the table
represents.
GRAPHS

- Is a graphical representation of data using


bars for bar graphs, lines for line graphs,
circles for pie graphs, and pictures for
pictographs.

1. Bar Graph – uses vertical and horizontal


bars that compare amounts and quantities.
2. Line Graph – shows trends and changes in
data.
3. Pie Graph – shows relationship of the parts
to the whole in percentages and
proportions.
Bar graph
Line Graph
Pie Graph
PARTS OF A RESEARCH PAPER
Title Page
• Contains an informative title which describes the
content of the paper, name of author/s and
addresses or affiliation, and date when it is
submitted.
Abstract
• Contains the summary of the findings and
conclusions.
• Briefly presents the context of the study,
research questions or objectives, methodology,
major findings, conclusions and sometimes
implications with minimal number of citations
and statistical data.
• Length ranges from 100 to 250 words.
Introduction
• Explains the current state of the field of
discipline and identifies research gaps addressed
by the research.
• Its length usually ranges from three to five
paragraphs.
Review of Related Literature/Studies
• Contains the summary and synthesis of all
available sources directly related to the study.
• Two sections:
related concept – explain some of the
fundamental concepts needed by readers to
better understand the study; and
related studies – based on previously conducted
studies directly related to the paper.
Methodology
• Contains the processes and steps taken in
gathering data for the research.
• Contains the context and participants, the
instruments used, data gathering procedure, and
data analysis.
Context and participants
Instrument section
Data gathering
Data Analysis
Results
• Factually describes the data gathered.
• Usually contains tables and graphs that
summarizes the collected data.
Discussion
• Presents the why’s of the results.
• Restate your research problems in relation to the
previous studies presented in the literature
review.
Conclusion
• Contains the restatement of major findings,
limitations of the study, recommendations and
implications.
References
• Contains the different sources used in the study.
These may be academic books, journals, and
other online sources.

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