Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 144

Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design basics of


Column
and
Pressure Vessel

N Shaikh
Manager
Process Design Engineering Cell
IOCL-RHQ
1
Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics


of
Column

Process Design Basics of Column 2


The First Distillation Still Process Design & Engg Cell

???

The First Distillation Still used in Digboi


Process Design Basics of Column
Distillation History Process Design & Engg Cell

Early distillation
consisted of simple batch
stills to produce ethanol.
Crude ethanol was placed
in a still and heated, and
the vapor drawn from the
still was condensed for
consumption.

Lamp oil was later


produced using the same
method, with crude oil
heated in batch stills.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation History Process Design & Engg Cell

Furnace Condenser

Batch Still Distillation Process

The next progression in the history of distillation was to


continually feed the still and recover the light product

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation History Process Design & Engg Cell

Still Distillation in Series


Further advancements include placing the stills in series and
interchanging the vapor and liquid from each still to improve recovery.
This was the first type of counter-current distillation column that we have
today

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation – Fractionation Process Design & Engg Cell

Fractional distillation is the separation of


a mixture into its component parts, or
fractions, such as in separating chemical
compounds by their boiling point by
heating them to a temperature at which
several fractions of the compound will
vaporize.

Fractional distillation in a laboratory makes


use of common laboratory glassware and
apparatuses, typically including a Bunsen
burner, a round-bottomed flask and a
condenser, as well as the single-purpose
fractionating column.
Process Design Basics of Column
Distillation vs Other Processes Process Design & Engg Cell

Distillation is by far the most important


separation process in the petroleum and
chemical industries. It is the separation of key
components in a mixture by the difference in
their relative volatility, or boiling points. It is
also known as fractional distillation or
fractionation.

Distillation can consume more than 50% of a


plant’s operating energy cost.
Alternatives to distillation process :
Solvent extraction, membrane separation or
adsorption process. These processes often have
higher investment costs. Therefore, distillation
remains the main choice in the industry,
especially in large-scale applications.
Process Design Basics of Column
Distillation Processes- Types Process Design & Engg Cell

Fractional Distillation

Extractive Distillation

Reactive Distillation

Variations appear due to difficulty in


separation when the physical properties of
the components in a mixture are very
close to one another, such as an azeotropic
mixture.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Processes- Types Process Design & Engg Cell

Fractional
Distillation:

It is the separation of key


components in a mixture
by the difference in their
relative volatility, or
boiling points.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Processes- Types Process Design & Engg Cell

Extractive Distillation
An external solvent is added
to the system to increase the
separation.

The external solvent changes


the relative volatility between
two ‘close’ components by
extracting one of the
components, forming a ternary
mixture with different
properties.

The solvent is recycled into


the system after the extracted
component is separated from it.
Process Design Basics of Column
Distillation Processes- Types Process Design & Engg Cell

Extractive Distillation
An external solvent is added
to the system to increase the
separation.

The external solvent changes


the relative volatility between
two ‘close’ components by
extracting one of the
components, forming a ternary
mixture with different
properties.

The solvent is recycled into


the system after the extracted
component is separated from it.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Processes- Types Process Design & Engg Cell

Reactive Distillation

A distillation column may


also have a catalyst bed and
reaction occurring in it. This
type of column is called a
reactive distillation column.
The targeted component
reacts when it is in contact
with the catalyst, thereby
separated from the rest of
the components in the
mixture.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Processes- Types Process Design & Engg Cell

Reactive Distillation

A distillation column may


also have a catalyst bed and
reaction occurring in it. This
type of column is called a
reactive distillation column.
The targeted component
reacts when it is in contact
with the catalyst, thereby
separated from the rest of
the components in the
mixture.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Processes- Types Process Design & Engg Cell

Reactive Distillation
Process Design Basics of Column
Industrial distillation Process Design & Engg Cell
Industrial distillation Process Design & Engg Cell

Distillation is the most common form of


separation technology used in petroleum
refineries, petrochemical and chemical
plants, natural gas processing and
cryogenic air separation plants.

Industrial distillation is typically


performed in large, vertical Cylindrical
columns known as "distillation or
fractionation towers" or "distillation
columns" with diameters ranging from
about 65 centimeters to 6 meters and
heights ranging from about 6 meters to
60 meters or more.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column/Fractionator Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Critera of Distillation Column internals :


To provide better mass and heat transfers
between the liquid and vapor phases in the
column.

Include trays, packings, distributors and


redistributors, baffles and etc.

Promote an intimate contact between both


Liq and Vap phases.

The type of internals selected would


determine the height and diameter of a
column for a specified duty because different
designs have various capacities and
efficiencies.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Column internals:

Two main types

Trays

Sieve
Bubble Cap
Valve Trays

Packing

Random : Rings, saddles


Structure

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Feed :
Liquid
Vapor
Mixture of vapor-liquid

The vapor phase that travels up the column


is in contact with the liquid phase that travels
down.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Vap- Liq pathways inside the


column :

The vapor phase that travels up the


column is in contact with the liquid
phase that travels down.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Column distillation is divided two


stages :

Rectifying stages

Striping stages

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Rectifying Stages

The process above the feed tray is known


as rectification.

Vapor phase is continually enriched in


the light components which will finally
make up the overhead product.

A liquid recycle condenses the less


volatile components from rising vapor.

To generate the liquid recycle, cooling is


applied to condense a portion of the
overhead vapor and termed as reflux.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Stripping Stages

The process below the feed tray is


known as stripping

Heavier components are being


stripped off and concentrated in the
liquid phase to form the bottom
product.

At the top of the column, vapor enters


the condenser where heat is removed.

Some liquid is returned to the column


as reflux to limit the loss of heavy
components overhead.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Overhead Process Design & Engg Cell

Condenser
Total Condenser
All vapors leaving the top of the column is
condensed to liquid so that the reflux
stream and overhead product have the same
composition.
Partial Condenser
In a partial condenser , only a portion of the
vapor entering the condenser is condensed to
liquid. Condensed liquid is refluxed into the
column and the overhead product drawn is in
the vapor form.
In many cases only part of the condensed liquid is
refluxed. In these cases, there will be two overhead
products, one a liquid with the same composition
as the reflux stream while the other is a vapor
product that is in equilibrium with the liquid
reflux.
Distillation Column Overhead Process Design & Engg Cell

Total Condenser Condenser


Total Condenser
All vapors leaving the top of the column is
condensed to liquid so that the reflux
stream and overhead product have the same
composition.
Partial Condenser
In a partial condenser , only a portion of the
vapor entering the condenser is condensed to
Partial Condenser liquid. Condensed liquid is refluxed into the
column and the overhead product drawn is in
the vapor form.
In many cases only part of the condensed liquid is
refluxed. In these cases, there will be two overhead
products, one a liquid with the same composition
as the reflux stream while the other is a vapor
product that is in equilibrium with the liquid
reflux.
Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Distillation Column

Tray Column Packed


Column

Bubble Sieve Dual Structur


Valve Random Grid
Cap Deck Flow Baffle Tray ed
Tray Packed Packed
Tray Tray Tray Packed
Column Column
Column

Shed Side to Disk and


Decks Side Donuts
Tray Tray Tray

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Tray Column

Utilize a pressure and temperature differential


to separate the products.

For most tray columns, the weir holds a liquid


level of each tray. Liquid enters from the down-
comer of the tray above.

The vapor must overcome this liquid head to


move up the column.

On the tray the vapor and liquid are contacted


becomes bubble or froth where the mass transfer
takes place and then above the tray they are
separated where froth flows over the outlet weir
and vapor with the light volatile compound is
disengaged.
Process Design Basics of Column
Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Tray Column-advantages

Tray column performs well in high liquid and


vapor loading.

Tray have higher pressure drop than packed.

 Tray also have high resistance to corrosion.

Tray Column-Types
Five major types of tray column :
•Bubble Cap
•Sieve
•Dual Flow
•Valve
•Baffle
Shed Deck, Side to Side, Disk and donuts
Process Design Basics of Column
Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Bubble Cap Tray

A bubble cap tray is


perforated flat which has a
riser (chimney) for each hole
cover with a cap mounted.
Equipped with slots to allow
the passage of vapor then the
vapor will contact with liquid
forming bubble on the next
tray.
It is able to operate at low
vapor and liquid rates (less
than 2 gpm per foot of average
of flow width).

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Bubble Cap Tray

A bubble cap tray is


perforated flat which has a
riser (chimney) for each hole
cover with a cap mounted.
Equipped with slots to allow
the passage of vapor then the
vapor will contact with liquid
forming bubble on the next
tray.
It is able to operate at low
vapor and liquid rates (less
than 2 gpm per foot of average
of flow width).

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Bubble Cap Tray

A bubble cap tray is


perforated flat which has a
riser (chimney) for each hole
cover with a cap mounted.
Equipped with slots to allow
the passage of vapor then the
vapor will contact with liquid
forming bubble on the next
tray.
It is able to operate at low
vapor and liquid rates (less
than 2 gpm per foot of average
of flow width).

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Sieve Deck Tray


Sieve deck tray is perforated plate with
holes punched into the plate usually has
holes 3/16” to 1” diameter.
Vapor comes out from the holes to give a
multi orifice effect.
The vapor velocity keeps the liquid from
flowing down through the holes (weeping).
The number and hole size are based on
vapor flow up the tower.
The liquid flow is transported down the
tower by down-comers, a dam and overflow
device on the side on the plate.
Sieve deck tray has a minimum capacity
approximately 70%

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Sieve Deck Tray


Sieve deck tray is perforated plate with
holes punched into the plate usually has
holes 3/16” to 1” diameter.
Vapor comes out from the holes to give a
multi orifice effect.
The vapor velocity keeps the liquid from
flowing down through the holes (weeping).
The number and hole size are based on
vapor flow up the tower.
The liquid flow is transported down the
tower by down-comers, a dam and overflow
device on the side on the plate.
Sieve deck tray has a minimum capacity
approximately 70%

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Dual flow tray


Dual flow is a sieve tray without down comer.
The term dual flow comes from the
countercurrent flow of the vapor and liquid
through the perforations.
Vapor move up to the tray above through the
hole while the liquid turn down in the same
hole that result maldistribution and low
efficiency.
Typical perforation sizes range between 1/2”
and 1” in diameter.
Dual flow trays best suit systems containing a
moderate to high solids content or
polymerizable compounds.
High open area dual flow trays have a higher
capacity and lower pressure drop than
comparably spaced fractionation trays.
Process Design Basics of Column
Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Valve Tray
Valve Tray is using valve which is rise as
vapor rate increase and then reduce as
vapor rate fails.

This stop the liquid from weeping.

 Valve can be round or rectangular, with


or without caging structured.

Valve disk rise as vapor rate increase.

Valve tray has minimum capacity


approximately 60%.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Valve Tray
Valve Tray is using valve which is rise
as vapor rate increase and then reduce
as vapor rate fails.

This stop the liquid from weeping.

 Valve can be round or rectangular,


with or without caging structured.

Valve disk rise as vapor rate increase.

Valve tray has minimum capacity


approximately 60%.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Baffle Tray
Baffle trays are trays of low fouling pot
ential, with low efficiency.
They have open areas approaching 50%
where a high efficiency tray will have an
open area of less than 15%.
The down-comers require a disengaging
area to separate the liquid from the vapor.
This area requires a minimum distance
that normally sets the tray spacing.
The liquid is required to travel across the
deck to the next down-comer.

Baffle tray has three types:


Shed Decks Trays
Side to Side Trays
Disk and Donuts Trays
Process Design Basics of Column
Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Baffle Tray
Because of their open design, baffle trays are
used in applications requiring high capacity,
fouling resistance and low pressure drop.
Vapor-liquid contacting takes place when the
vapor passes through a curtain of liquid falling
between trays, or through rivulets of liquid
flowing through tray deck perforations.
Tray decks may be level or slightly inclined
and typically occupy 40-60% of the tower
cross-sectional area. “.
Baffle trays are well suited for heat
transfer applications including heavy oil
refining and petrochemical oil refining and
petrochemical heat transfer services with
high solids or petroleum coke content.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Baffle Tray
Side to side baffle trays

Side-to-side trays are trays that


allow the liquid to splash from
side to side.

The decks can be sloped.

Fouling potential of this tray is


low, as with efficiency.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Baffle Tray
Disk and donut trays

Disk and donut trays are slightly


sloped trays that allow the liquid to
splash from inner circle ring to outer
circle ring.

Fouling potential of this tray is low


along with the efficiency.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Baffle Tray
Disk and donut trays

Disk and donut trays are slightly


sloped trays that allow the liquid to
splash from inner circle ring to outer
Schematic circle ring.
of a disk
and donut
baffle tray Fouling potential of this tray is low
column for
use as a
along with the efficiency.
steam
condenser

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Baffle Tray
Disk and donut trays

Disk and donut trays are slightly


sloped trays that allow the liquid to
splash from inner circle ring to outer
circle ring.

Fouling potential of this tray is low


along with the efficiency.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell

Baffle Tray
Shed Decks trays

Shed decks are essentially angle iron beams of


various sizes from two to ten inches that are
placed in rows across the column.

They typically are at on 24 inch tray spacing.

They may be set in overlapping rows or


rotated 90 degrees from tray to tray.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column with packing Process Design & Engg Cell

Packed Column
Packed column utilize packing to contact between
the phases (liquid-vapor) on the surface.
A major advantage to packed columns
is the reduction in pressure across the column.
Typically the column pressure drop for a
packed column is less than that of a trayed col
umn because of the percent open area.
Typical percent open area of a trayed column
is 8 to 15%, whereas a packed column can
approach 50%.
Packed column is advantageous than tray for
reduced foaming since generates thin films instead
of fine droplets for mass and heat transfer.
Packed column is divided by
Random, Structured and Grid Packed
Schematic diagram of a typical packed
Columns
bed absorption column
Process Design Basics of Column
Distillation Column with packing Process Design & Engg Cell

Packed Column—
random packing

Random packing is packing of


specific geometrical shapes which
are dumped into the tower and
orient themselves randomly.

Random packing has more risk


than structured packing and less
ability to handle maldistributed
liquid.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column with packing Process Design & Engg Cell

Packed Column-structured
packing

Structure Packed column is crimped


layers or corrugated sheets which is
stacked in the column.

Each layer is oriented at 70° to 90° to


the layer below.

Structured packed offers 30%


capacities higher than random packed for
equal efficiency up to 50% higher at the
same capacity.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column with packing Process Design & Engg Cell

Packed Column-Grid
packing

Grid packed column is


systematically arranged packing
use an open-lattice structure.

This device is composed of


panels that promote mass transfer
and enhance entrainment removal.

They have high open area,


resulting in high capacity, low
pressure drop, and high tolerance
to fouling.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Design Process Design & Engg Cell

General Considerations

A tower design is normally divided into two main steps a process


design followed by a mechanical design.

 The purpose of the process design is to calculate the number of


required theoretical stages, column diameter and tower height.

On the other hand, the mechanical design focuses on the tower
internals and heat exchanger arrangements.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Design Process Design & Engg Cell

Steps :
Determine the separation sequences, which depends on the relative volatility
and concentration of each component in the feed

 Performing a material balance for the column

Determining the tower operating pressure (and/or temperature)

Calculating the minimum number of theoretical stages using the Fenske


equation

Calculating the minimum reflux rate using the Underwood equations

Determining the operating reflux rate and number of theoretical stages

Selection of column internals (tray or packings)

Calculating the tower diameter and height

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Design Process Design & Engg Cell

The Selection of Column Internals :


The selection of column internals has a big impact on the column
performance and the maintenance cost of a distillation tower.

There are several choices of column internals and the two major categories
are trays and packing. The choice of which to utilize depends on the

Pressure
Fouling potential
Liquid to vapor density ratio
Liquid Loading
Life Cycle Cost

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Design Process Design & Engg Cell

Criteria for Tray Column

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Design Process Design & Engg Cell

Criteria for Packed Column

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Design Process Design & Engg Cell

Important Thumb rule :


Tower operating pressure is determined most often by the temperature of the
available cooling medium in the condenser or by the maximum allowable reboiler
temperature.

Economically optimum reflux ratio is about 120% to 150% of the minimum reflux
ratio.
The economically optimum number of stages is about 200% of the minimum value.

A safety factor of at least 25% about the reflux should be utilized for the reflux
pumps.

Reflux drums are almost always horizontally mounted and designed for a
5 min holdup at half of the drum's capacity.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Design Process Design & Engg Cell

Important Thumb rule :


Limit tower heights to 175 ft (53 m) due to wind load and foundation
considerations.

The Length/Diameter ratio of a tower should be no more than 30 and preferably


below 20.

A rough estimate of reboiler duty as a function of tower diameter is given by:

Q = 0.5 D2 for pressure distillation


Q = 0.3 D2 for atmospheric distillation
Q = 0.15 D2 for vacuum distillation
Where,
Q : Energy in Million Btu/hr
D : Tower diameter in feet.

Process Design Basics of Column


Distillation Column Design Process Design & Engg Cell

Important Thumb rule :


Overall column height depends on tray spacing. Tray spacing should from 18“ to 24“
(ease of maintenance to be kept in mind).

For tower dia > 4 ft, Tray spacing ~ 24 “ and for tower dia < 4 ft, Tray spacing is
~18”.

Peak tray efficiencies usually occur at linear vapor velocities of 2 ft/s (0.6
m/s) at moderate pressures, or 6 ft/s (1.8 m/s) under vacuum conditions.

A typical pressure drop per tray is 0.1 psi (0.007 bar).

Tray efficiencies for aqueous solutions are usually in the range of 60-
90% while gas absorption and stripping typically have efficiencies closer to 10-20%

Process Design Basics of Column


Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics


of
Pressure Vessel

58
Process Vessel --- why required??? Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Vessel are necessary for providing:

Hold up time of fluid

Phase-Separation
-separation between various phases of mixed process stream

a. Liquid-Liquid
b. Vapor-Liquid
c. Vapor-Liquid-Liquid

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 59


Process Vessel --- types ??? Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Vessel can be classfied as :


Vertical
a.Knockout drums (except flare knockout drums)
b.Flash drums
c.Blowdown drums
d.Driers

Horizontal
a. Distillate drums – reflux vessels
b. Surge vessels
c. Steam drums
d.Settling drums
e.Flare knockout drums

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 60


Vertical vs. Horizontal Vessels Process Design & Engg Cell

Advantages of a vertical vessel are:


 A smaller plot area is required (critical on offshore platforms)
 Large Vapor throughput with small liquid hold up
 Generally the vessel volume is smaller

Advantages of a horizontal vessel are:


 It is easier to accommodate large liquid flow
 Less head room is required
 The downward liquid velocity is lower, resulting in improved de-gassing
and foam breakdown
 Additional to vapor / liquid separation also a liquid / liquid separation can
be achieved (e.g. by installing a boot).

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 61


Vertical vs. Horizontal Vessels--services Process Design & Engg Cell

The preferred orientation for a number of typical vapor / liquid separators

Application Preferred Orientation


Reactor Effluent Separator Vertical
(V/L)
Reactor Effluent Separator Horizontal
(V/L/L)
Reflux Accumulator Horizontal
Compressor KO Drum Vertical
Fuel Gas KO Drum Vertical
Flare KO Drum Horizontal
Condensate Flash Drum Vertical

62
Process Design & Engg Cell

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 63


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

41.5 ft

17+3 THK CLAD


(MIN.)
2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD

N2
15+3 THK CLAD (MIN.)

M1
N1
AFTER FORMING (TYP.)

M11
M10
M17

M16
M18

M5
MIN
MIN

WEAR
PLATE

RADIUS ELBOW
900 SHORT
N12A

150 MM MINIMUM (HHLL TO


HHLL 10 FT NAME

BOTTOM OF PIPE)
PLATE

HLL 9 FT
12.5 ft

M2

N14A

NLL 6 FT

VORTEX BREKER
LLL 3 FT N12B

LLLL 10 Inch
N14B

`
N15A
N8

6 Inch (min)

N13A
HIL 2 FT

1:120 4 ft.
12
10+3 THK CLAD 4.16 ft
(MIN)

5 ft
NIL 1 FT
SADDLE 2 NOS.
200

N6
LIL 1 FT

N13B
2 NOS. EARTHING LUGS 2 ft. MIN

N3
N9
165
12

STIFFENER RING-1 NO
AT CENTER
MIN

2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD MIN


10+3 THK CLAD (MIN.)
AFTER FORMING (TYP.)

N4
VORTEX BREKER

N7

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 64


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 65


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Major steps for Vapor/Liquid vessel sizing


Step 0: Assume L/D ratio and % vapour area

Assume L/D ratio

Assume % Vapour area from the standard

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 66


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Major steps for Vapor/Liquid vessel sizing


Step 1: Calculate Minimum allowable vapor area

 For both Horizontal & vertical vessels

Area =flow volume per second/ allowable velocity per second

 The allowable vapor velocity (VA) is obtained by applying a factor


to the critical velocity (Vc - maxm allowable design velocity).

VA = Factor x Vc
L
VC = 0.15   1
G

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 67


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

ALLOWABLE VELOCITY FACTORS

Drum Type Factor

Vertical knockout drum without internals 1.0

Vertical knockout drum with baffles


1.5

Vertical knockout drums with horizontal crinkled


wire mesh pad. (Pad at least 4 inches (10
centimeters) thick) 2.0

Horizontal drums (With or without crinkled wire


mesh pad) 1.7

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 68


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step 2: Calculate Liquid Space


a. Liquid Surge Volume (LLL-HLL) -- guidelines for liquid surge time

Service Surge Time, Minutes


Feed to Tower or Furnace
Drum Diameter, feet
Below 4 20
4 to 6, inclusive 15
Above 6 10

Reflux to Tower 5
Product to Storage 2
Flow to Heat Exchanger 2
Flow to Sewer or Drain 1

In case surge must be provided for both product and reflux, the larger volume is used, not the sum of the two volumes.

When the discharge rate is unimportant, a nominal surge (or holdup) time of approximately two (2) minutes is provided.

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 69


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step 2: Calculate Liquid Space


b. Surge Volume (BTM-LLL) – Locating LLL
Without Water Settling

For guidance, the following minimum levels may be used:


Horizontal drums 6 inches (15 centimeters) above bottom
Vertical drums 6 inches above lower tangent line

With Water Settling


Provide five (5) minutes holdup at the total hydrocarbon rate below the
low liquid level for the “settling out“ of water.

In case no pot is employed, holdup for the water itself must also be provided in
the bottom of the drum.

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 70


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step 2: Calculate Liquid Space


b. Surge Volume (BTM-HLL) – Locating HLL

Following minimum distance are maintained above HLL


Horizontal Drums

Minimum 20% of the drum diameter or 12 inches (30 centimeters) or clearance for feed
inlet device, whichever is greater, to top of drum.

Vertical Drums

1'-0" to the bottom of the inlet arrangement (bottom of nozzle, elbow, or


impingement baffle) when vapor is present. If no vapor is present, 15% of the drum
diameter or 12 inches (30 centimeters) or clearance for feed inlet device, whichever is
greater, to the upper tangent line

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 71


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step 2: Calculate Liquid Space


c. Total Liquid Volume

Volume (LLL-HLL ) + Volume (BTM-LLL)

Step 3: Drum Dia and Length calculation

 π d2  x % of Total Drum Volume Occupied by Liquid


 x L
 4 
 
= Total Volume of Liquid

“D” and “L” is calculated from above assuming L/D ratio

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 72


Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Length to Diameter (L/D) ratio:

Design Pressure, in Psig Length to Diameter Ratio (L/D)

50 and less 2:1 to 3:1

greater than 50 4:1 to 5:1

Note: 3.5 kg/cm2 gauge is equivalent to 50 psig

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 73


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Check A: Vapor Space Check

a. Check that height of Vapor area >=0.20 x Drum Dia

% of Total vapor area= (Minimum vapor area (step-1)/ Total area )x100

Height of vapor area can be calculated from the standard chart

b. Vapor space check w.r.t.feed inlet device

Take the larger height of the check “a” and “b”

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 74


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 75


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Required Distance for 900 Elbows


Nominal Vertical Drums Horizontal Drums
Elbow
Diameter, High Liquid Level to Nozzles High Liquid Level to Top of Drums, Inches
Inches Centerline, Inches
Short Long Radius Short Radius Elbow Long Radius Elbow
Radius Elbow Elbow
Minimum Recommended Minimum Recommended

1 13 14 4 10 5 10
1½ 14 15 5 11 6 11
2 14 15 6 11 7 12
3 15 17 7 13 8 14
4 16 18 9 14 11 16
6 18 21 12 17 15 20
8 24 28 15 20 19 24
10 30 35 18 23 23 28
12 36 42 21 26 27 32
14 42 49 23 29 30 36
16 48 56 26 32 34 40
18 54 63 29 35 38 44
20 60 70 32 38 42 48
24 72 84 38 44 50 56
Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 76
Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step 4: Height (BTM-LLL) calculation


Area (BTM-LLL) =Volume (BTM-LLL ) / Length

% Area (BTM-LLL) = Area (BTM-LLL) / Total Area

Height (BTM-LLL) can be calculated using the chart

Step 5: Height (BTM-HLL) calculation


Volume (BTM-HLL)= Volume (BTM-LLL ) +Volume (LLL-HLL)

Area (BTM-HLL) =Volume (BTM-HLL ) / Length

% Area ( BTM-HLL) = Area (BTM-HLL) / Total Area

Height (BTM-HLL) can be calculated using the chart

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 77


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step 6: Locating Normal Liquid Level

NLL = (LLL+HLL)/2

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 78


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Water Settling (Draw off Pots) --- Boot Calculation

MAXIMUM POT DIAMETER

Drum Diameter Max. Pot Diameter

Below 60 inches (150 centimeters) 1/2 drum diameter

60 inches and larger 1/3 drum diameter

Increase the water velocity as required up to 10 inches per minute (25 centimeters per
minute) to avoid exceeding these values.

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 79


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Water Settling (Draw off Pots) --- Boot Calculation


MINIMUM POT DIAMETER

Drum Diameter Pot Diameter

Feet Centimeters Inches Centimeters

Below 5 Below 150 12 30

5 to 8 150 to 240 18 45
inclusive inclusive

Above 8 Above 240 24 60

If extremely low water velocities, less than 0.10 inches per minute (0.25 centimeters per
minute) are obtained with the above diameters, do not provide a pot. Instead, extend
the hydrocarbon outlet above the bottom of the drum to provide disengaging.

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 80


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Water Settling (Draw off Pots) --- Boot Calculation

Step1 : Consider boot diameter as per the guideline

Step2 : Consider boot liquid hold-up time of ~ 10 mins between LIL & HIL

Step3: Calculate Length of boot

Step 4: Check Min. length of 3 ft betn. HIL & LIL for controller connection

Step5 : Keep minimum distance of 1 ft betn. LIL & BTL of Boot

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 81


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

41.5 ft

17+3 THK CLAD


(MIN.)
2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD

N2
15+3 THK CLAD (MIN.)

M1
N1
AFTER FORMING (TYP.)

M11
M10
M17

M16
M18

M5
MIN
MIN

WEAR
PLATE

RADIUS ELBOW
900 SHORT
N12A

150 MM MINIMUM (HHLL TO


HHLL 10 FT NAME

BOTTOM OF PIPE)
PLATE

HLL 9 FT
12.5 ft

M2

N14A

NLL 6 FT

VORTEX BREKER
LLL 3 FT N12B

LLLL 10 Inch
N14B

`
N15A
N8

6 Inch (min)

N13A
HIL 2 FT

1:120 4 ft.
12
10+3 THK CLAD 4.16 ft
(MIN)

5 ft
NIL 1 FT
SADDLE 2 NOS.
200

N6
LIL 1 FT

N13B
2 NOS. EARTHING LUGS 2 ft. MIN

N3
N9
165
12

STIFFENER RING-1 NO
AT CENTER
MIN

2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD MIN


10+3 THK CLAD (MIN.)
AFTER FORMING (TYP.)

N4
VORTEX BREKER

N7

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 82


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 83


Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Slop for Horizontal vessel:

1 inch in 10 feet down towards the outlet or low point drain so


that the vessel may be completely drained during shutdown.

This slope is equivalent to a slope of 1:120.

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 84


Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Location of Feed Inlet Nozzle

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 85


Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Feed Inlet
Inlet Nozzle

The feed nozzle is normally sized to limit the momentum of the feed.
The limitation depends on whether or not a feed inlet device is installed.

Inlet device

Impacts vapor / liquid separation that can be achieved

Some Typical Inlet Device are as follows:

A Deflector Baffle
Slotted Tee
Half Open Pipe

86
Table 3

Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Feed Inlet device

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 87


Table 3

Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Feed Inlet device

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 88


Vessels - Internals Process Design & Engg Cell

Vortex Breaker

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 89


Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh
Process Design & Engg Cell

Vapor (Liquid Free)

Wire Mesh

Liquid

Feed Inlet Vapor (Entrained Liquid)

Vapor + Liquid

90
Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh
Process Design & Engg Cell

91
Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh
Process Design & Engg Cell

92
Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh
Process Design & Engg Cell

They are used for two reasons:


To minimize entrainment

 Suction drums for reciprocating compressors are the most notable examples

To reduce the size of a vessel

The allowable vapor velocity in a drum can be increased significantly by using a


wire mesh demister.

So, when sizing is governed by vapor-liquid separation criteria, this will result in a
smaller diameter of the vessel

Major disadvantage of wire mesh demisters is:

They are not suitable for fouling services

93
Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Inlet / Outlet Nozzle sizing guideline

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 94


Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Inlet / Outlet Nozzle sizing guideline

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 95


Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Vapor Nozzles sizing guideline

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 96


Vessels - Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 97


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

TYPICAL LIMITS FOR VAPOR-LIQUID SEPARATOR


PARAMETER LOWER LIMIT UPPER LIMIT

Vessel Diameter, ft (m) 0.7 (0.2) 25 (7.6)

Vapor Density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3) 0.005 (0.08) 5 (80)

Liquid Density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3) 20 (320) 80 (1280)

Surface Tension, dynes/cm or mN/m 2 75

Liquid Viscosity, cP or mPa•s 0.05 2

CWMS Liquid Loading, gpm/ft2


0.0 (0.0) 20 (13.6)
(dm3/s•m2)

Foaming Tendency NONE, except for Crude Flash Vessels

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 98


Process Design & Engg Cell

Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 99


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 100


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Major steps for Liquid/Liquid vessel sizing

Step1. Liquid /Liquid Separators are generally horizontal

L/D ratio ~ 4:1 or 5:1

Step2. Calculate Rising Rate (V) of Light Liquid through Heavy Liquid

---Calculation require droplet diameter


DROPLET SIZES
Droplet Diameter
System Inches Centimeters

Caustic - 0.85 specific gravity oils 0.005 each phase 0.012 each phase
Water - Naphtha or heating oils 0.005 each phase 0.012 each phase
Propane - oil deresining 0.004 each phase 0.010 each phase

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 101


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step3. Calculate Rising Rate (V) of Light Liquid through Heavy Liquid

a. Calculate Rising Velocity

Stokes’ law (Reynolds number less than 1)


V = 8.3 x 105 x d2 x Δ S / uc

Intermediate law (Reynolds number between 1 and 1,000)


V = 1.04 x 104 x d1.14 x Δ S0.71 / ( Sc0.29 x uc0.43 )

Newton’s law (Reynolds number between 1,000 and 200,000)


V = 2.05 x 103 (d Δ S)0.5 / ( Sc )

Where the Reynolds number = 10.7 d V Sc / uc

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 102


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Where the Reynolds number = 10.7 d V Sc / uc

V = settling rate in each phase, inches per minute


d = droplet diameter, inches
S = droplet specific gravity
Sc = continuous phase specific gravity
Δ S = specific gravity differential between phases
uc = continuous phase viscosity, centipoise

b. Select Rising velocity based on Re value from point “a”. But if rising
velocity exceeds 10"/min then take 10”/min.

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 103


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step4. Calculate Settling Rate (V) of Heavy Liquid through Light Liquid

a. Calculate Settling Velocity

Stokes’ law (Reynolds number less than 1)


V = 8.3 x 105 x d2 x Δ S / uc

Intermediate law (Reynolds number between 1 and 1,000)


V = 1.04 x 104 x d1.14 x Δ S0.71 / ( Sc0.29 x uc0.43 )

Newton’s law (Reynolds number between 1,000 and 200,000)


V = 2.05 x 103 (d Δ S)0.5 / ( Sc )

Where the Reynolds number = 10.7 d V Sc / uc

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 104


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Where the Reynolds number = 10.7 d V Sc / uc

V = settling rate in each phase, inches per minute


d = droplet diameter, inches
S = droplet specific gravity
Sc = continuous phase specific gravity
Δ S = specific gravity differential between phases
uc = continuous phase viscosity, centipoise

b. Select Settling velocity based on Re value from point “a”. But if settling
velocity exceeds 10"/min then take 10”/min.

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 105


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step5. Calculate Vessel Diameter

D= 2 +1.7 (flow rate / V) ½

“flow rate“ = that of light phase, cubic feet per minute

V= settling rate of heavy droplet,inches/min

D = drum diameter, feet

Step6. Calculate “L” Keeping L/D ratio 4:1 to 5:1

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 106


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step6. Calculate Low & High Interface levels

a. Bottom Tangent Line (BTL) to Low Interface Level (LIL)


-----Recommended 12 inches minimum

(i) Calculate Height (BTL-LIL)/Radius of Drum


(ii) Calculate % Area occupied by BTL-LIL from chart---y

b. Bottom Tangent Line (BTL) to High Interface Level (HIL)

Low Interface level (LIL) to High interface level (HIL)


-----Recommended 14 inches minimum
(i) Calculate Height (BTL-HIL)/Radius of Drum
(ii) Calculate % Area occupied by BTL-HIL from chart-----x

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 107


Drum sizing- Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 108


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step7. Residence time of Heavy Liquid settling through Light Liquid

a. Area between high and low interfaces


=(x-y)*0.01*cross sectional area of vessel

b. Residence time of Heavy Liquid between high and low interface level
=area in”a”*L/Heavy Liquid volume flow

CHECK: Residence time should be more than 2 min

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 109


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step8. Light phase space settling time

a. Distance Heavy Liquid must fall from top of drum to High Interface level
=Vessel dia - Height(BTL-HIL)

d. Heavy Liquid settling time (between top of drum and high interface level)
required for separation
= Distance “a”/ Heavy Liq settling velocity

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 110


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step9. Light phase space residence time

a. Light Space Area


=(100 - % area occupied below HIL)*Vessel cross sectional area*0.01

b. Light Space volume


= Light space area*L

c. Light phase Space residence time= Light space volume/Light Liq flow rate

CHECK : Light phase space residence time


> Heavy Liquid settling time through Light phase

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 111


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step10. Heavy phase space rising time

a. Distance Light Liquid must travel from bottom of drum to low Interface
level =Height (BTL-LIL)

d. Light Liquid rising time (between bottom of drum and low interface level)
required for separation = Height (BTL-LIL) /Light Liq rising velocity

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 112


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Step11. Heavy phase space residence time

a. Heavy Space Area


=( % area occupied below LIL)*Vessel cross sectional area*0.01

b. Heavy Space volume


= Heavy space area*L

c. Heavy phase Space residence time


= Heavy space volume/Heavy Liq flow rate

CHECK : Heavy phase space residence time


> Light Liquid rising time through Heavy phase

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 113


Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 114


Process Design & Engg Cell

Drum sizing- Vertical Flash Drum

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 115


Drum sizing- Vertical Flash Drum Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 116


Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh
Process Design & Engg Cell

Vapor (Liquid Free)

Wire Mesh

Liquid

Feed Inlet Vapor (Entrained Liquid)

Vapor + Liquid

117
Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh
Process Design & Engg Cell

They are used for two reasons:


To minimize entrainment

 Suction drums for reciprocating compressors are the most notable examples

To reduce the size of a vessel

The allowable vapor velocity in a drum can be increased significantly by using a


wire mesh demister.

So, when sizing is governed by vapor-liquid separation criteria, this will result in a
smaller diameter of the vessel

Major disadvantage of wire mesh demisters is:

They are not suitable for fouling services

118
Drum sizing- Vertical Flash Drum Process Design & Engg Cell

Major steps for Vertical Flash Drum Sizing

Step1. Vessel with CWMS or without CWMS

a. The use of a crinkled wire mesh pad or screen would not permit a large
reduction in vessel size for vessels lower than 4 ft in diameter, and since a
crinkled wire mesh pad or screen is fairly expensive, it is not used much in
diameters less than 4 ft. When used, it would be to prevent large slugs of
liquid from going to the compressor.

Step 2: Calculate with Crinkled Wire Mesh Screen

a. Calculate critical vap velocity


b. Calculate allowable vap velocity ( with CWMS, allowable factor – 2.0)
c. Calculate min vap area (Vap Flow rate/allowable vap velocity)
d. Calculate minimum diameter

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 119


Drum sizing- Vertical Flash Drum Process Design & Engg Cell

Step3. Calculate without Crinkled Wire Mesh Screen

a. Calculate critical vap velocity


b.Calculate allowable vap velocity ( without CWMS, allowable factor – 1.0)
c. Calculate min vap area (Vap Flow rate/allowable vap velocity)
d.Calculate minimum diameter

Step4. Liquid surge volume and height calculation

a.Consider liquid hold–up time (between LLL-HLL) as per standard


b.Calculate LLL-HLL height

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 120


Drum sizing- Vertical Flash Drum Process Design & Engg Cell

Step5. Drum height

a. Height of CWMS (if there)


b. Height of inlet +elbow - min recommended 2.5 ft
c. Height (Vessel top tangent line to top of inlet nozzle)
- min recommended 2.5 ft
d. Height HLL to bottom of Inlet nozzle – min recommended 1 ft
e. Height (LLL to Bottom Tangent line)– min recommended 0.5 ft
f. Height (HLL-LLL)
f. Total Drum Height Calculated
g. Check L/D - as per previous table. If L/D is not OK, calculate with new Dia

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 121


Process Design & Engg Cell

Drum sizing- Vertical KOD

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 122


Drum sizing- Vertical KOD Process Design & Engg Cell

Major steps for Vertical KOD Sizing

Step1. Vessel with CWMS or without CWMS

a. The use of a crinkled wire mesh pad or screen would not permit a large
reduction in vessel size for vessels lower than 4 ft in diameter, and since a
crinkled wire mesh pad or screen is fairly expensive, it is not used much in
diameters less than 4 ft. When used, it would be to prevent large slugs of
liquid from going to the compressor.

Step 2: Calculate with Crinkled Wire Mesh Screen

a. Calculate critical vap velocity


b. Calculate allowable vap velocity ( with CWMS, allowable factor – 2.0)
c. Calculate min vap area (Vap Flow rate/allowable vap velocity)
d. Calculate minimum diameter

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 123


Drum sizing- Vertical KOD Process Design & Engg Cell

Step3. Calculate without Crinkled Wire Mesh Screen

a. Calculate critical vap velocity


b. Calculate allowable vap velocity ( without CWMS, allowable factor – 1.0)
c. Calculate min vap area (Vap Flow rate/allowable vap velocity)
d. Calculate minimum diameter

Step4. Liquid surge volume and height calculation

a.Consider liquid hold–up time (between LLL-HLL)


– min recommended 24 hrs
b.Calculate LLL-HLL height
– min recommended 1.5 ft

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 124


Drum sizing- Vertical KOD Process Design & Engg Cell

Step5. Drum height

a. Height of CWMS (if there)


b. Height of inlet +elbow - min recommended 2.5 ft
c. Height (Vessel top tangent line to top of inlet nozzle)
- min recommended 2.5 ft
d. Height HLL to bottom of Inlet nozzle – min recommended 1 ft

e. Height (LLL to Bottom Tangent line)– min recommended 0.5 ft


f. Height (HLL-LLL) – min recommended for KOD is 1.5 ft
g. Total Drum Height Calculated
h. Check L/D - typical L/D for KOD is 2:1

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 125


Process Design & Engg Cell

Drum sizing- Flare KOD

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 126


Drum sizing- Flare KOD Process Design & Engg Cell

Typical Flare KOD

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 127


Drum sizing- Flare KOD Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 128


Drum sizing- Flare KOD Process Design & Engg Cell

Major steps for Flare KOD Sizing

Step1. Drum sizing based on maximum single risk vapor load condition

a. Sp. Garvity of HC liq from chart at 3200F and 19 psia


b. Dropout Velocity(VD) -- Critical velocity
c. Allowable Velocity (VA) – Generally 1.0 for conservative case
d. Assume vapor space Height (HLL-top of drum)
e. Liquid space Height (BTL-HLL)- Generally zero(0)
f. Residence time – Vapor Space height / Allowable velocity
g. Find vapor volume = maxm vap Flow rate/residence time
= drum volume
a. Drum Dia = maxm vap space height
b. Find drum length
c. Check L/D ratio– within 3:1 to 5:1

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 129


Drum sizing- Flare KOD Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 130


Drum sizing- Flare KOD Process Design & Engg Cell

Step2. Check Drum sizing based on maximum liquid relief condition

a. Maximum liquid relief load after flash at operating condn


– generally 3200F and 19 psia
b. Liq flow time – Generally 2 hrs recommended
c. Pump capacity for liquid out
d. Net Liq fill up flow = “a*b” – “c”
e. Net liq fill up volume= “d” * “b”
f. Find Drum volumetric capacity = 3.14*0.25*D2*L
( using D & L calculated in Step-1)

CHECK: Net Liq Fill up Volume (for maxm liquid relief condition)
<= 50% of Drum Volumetric capacity( for maxm vapor load condition)

If not satisfied, recalculate

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 131


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 132


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 133


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 134


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 135


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 136


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 137


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 138


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 139


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 140


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 141


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 142


Example

Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 143


Process Design & Engg Cell

144