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# Chapter 2

## SIGNALS AND SPECTRA

Chapter Objectives:
• Basic signal properties (DC, RMS, dBm, and power);
• Fourier transform and spectra;
• Linear systems and linear distortion;
• Band limited signals and sampling;
• Discrete Fourier Transform;
• Bandwidth of signals.

Erhan A. İnce
Eeng360 Communication Systems I 1
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Eeng360
Eastern Mediterranean University
Properties of Signals & Noise
 In communication systems, the received waveform is
usually categorized into two parts:

Signal: Noise:
The desired part containing the The undesired part
information. that corrupts the
signal
Properties of waveforms include:
• DC value, • phase spectrum,
• root-mean-square (rms) value, • power spectral density,
• normalized power, • bandwidth
• magnitude spectrum, • ………………..
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Physically Realizable Waveforms
 Physically realizable waveforms are practical
waveforms which can be measured in a laboratory.

## • The waveform has significant nonzero values over a

composite time interval that is finite.
• The spectrum of the waveform has significant values over a
composite frequency interval that is finite
• The waveform is a continuous function of time
• The waveform has a finite peak value
• The waveform has only real values. That is, at any time, it
cannot have a complex value a+jb, where b is nonzero.

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Physically Realizable Waveforms
 Mathematical models that violate some or all of the conditions
listed above are often used
 One main reason is to simplify the mathematical analysis.
 If we are careful with the mathematical model, the correct
result can be obtained when the answer is properly interpreted.

Physical Waveform

## Mathematical Model Waveform

The Math model in this example
violates the following rules:
1. Continuity
2. Finite duration
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Time Average Operator

## The operator is a linear operator,

• the average of the sum of two quantities is the same as
the sum of their averages:

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Periodic Waveforms
 Definition
A waveform w(t) is periodic with period T0 if,
w(t) = w(t + T0) for all t
where T0 is the smallest positive number
 A sinusoidal waveform of frequency f0 = 1/T0 Hz is periodic

##  Theorem: If the waveform involved is periodic, the time average

operator can be reduced to

where T0 is the period of the waveform and a is an arbitrary real constant, which
may be taken as zero.

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DC Value
Definition: The DC (direct “current”) value of a
waveform w(t) is given by its time average, ‹w(t)›. Thus,

##  For a physical waveform, we are actually interested in evaluating

the DC value only over a finite interval of interest, say, from t1 to t2,
so that the dc value is

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If we use a mathematical model with a steady-state
waveform of infinite extent, then the formula with T  
can be used

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Power

 Definition.
Let v(t) denote the voltage across the input of a circuit, and
let i(t) denote the current into the terminal, as shown
the instantaneous power (incremental work divided by
incremental time) associated with the circuit is given by:
p(t) = v(t)i(t)
the instantaneous power flows into the circuit when p(t) is
positive and flows out of the circuit when p(t) is negative.
 The average power is:
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Evaluation of DC value
 A 120V , 60 Hz fluorescent lamp wired in a high power factor configuration.
Assume the voltage and current are both sinusoids and in phase ( unity power
factor)
Voltage

## DC Value of this waveform is:

VDC  v(t )  V cos 0t
Current
1 T0 / 2

T0 
T0 / 2
V cos 0t  dt  0

Where,
Instantenous Power
0  2 / T0 , and
f 0  1/ T0  60 Hz
Similarly, I DC  0
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p(t) = v(t)i(t)
Evaluation of Power
The instantaneous power is:
p (t )  V cos 0t   I cos 0t 
 1 / 2  VI 1  2 cos 0t 
Note : 2 cos x cos y  cos( x  y )  cos( x  y )

## The Average power is:

P  1/ 2  VI 1  2 cos 0t 
T
VI
1  2 cos 0t  dt
0

 
2
T Maximum
2T0 0
2
Power
VI
 Average
2 Power
The maximum power is: Eeng360 11
Pmax=VI
RMS Value

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Normalized Power
 In the concept of Normalized Power, R is assumed to be 1Ω,
although it may be another value in the actual circuit.
 Another way of expressing this concept is to say that the
power is given on a per-ohm basis.
 It can also be realized that the square root of the normalized
power is the rms value.

## Definition. The average normalized power is given as follows,

where w(t) is a voltage or current waveform

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Energy and Power Waveforms

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Energy and Power Waveforms
 a waveform can be either an enery or a power signal and not
both.

 If w(t) has finite energy, the power averaged over infinite time
is zero.

if infinite.

##  However, mathematical functions can be found that have both

infinite energy and infinite power and, consequently, cannot be
classified into either of these two categories. (w(t) = e-t).

##  Physically realizable waveforms are of the energy type.

– We can find a finite power for these!!
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Decibel
 A base 10 logarithmic measure of power ratios.
 The ratio of the power level at the output of a circuit
compared with that at the input is often specified by
the decibel gain instead of the actual ratio.
 Decibel measure can be defined in 3 ways
• Decibel Gain
• Decibel signal-to-noise ratio
• Decibel with milli-watt reference or dBm
 Definition: Decibel Gain of a circuit is:

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Decibel Gain

##  If resistive loads are involved,

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or

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Decibel Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR)
 Definition. The decibel signal-to-noise ratio (S/R, SNR) is:

## So, definition is equivalent to

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Decibel with Mili watt Reference (dBm)

## = 30 + 10 log (Actual Power Level (watts))

• Here the “m” in the dBm denotes a milliwatt reference.
• When a 1-W reference level is used, the decibel level is
denoted dBW;
• when a 1-kW reference level is used, the decibel level is
denoted dBk.
E.g.: If an antenna receives a signal power of 0.3W, what is the