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THE HUMAN HEART

THE HUMAN HEART

OVERVIEW OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit Arteries (Including the coronary arteries) Veins (Including the coronary veins) Capillaries (Arterioles & Venules) Four chambers of the heart

HEART POSITIONING

Located near the anterior chest wall Posterior to the sternum Lies slightly to the left of the midline Sits at an angle Rotated toward the left side

Anatomical position of the heart from Grays Anatomy

Anatomical position of the heart from Grays Anatomy

Pericardial Cavity

Anterior cavity of the mediastinum Separates the two pleural cavities

Contains the thymus, esophagus & the trachea

Pericardium

Pericardial cavity is lined by the pericardium.

Visceral pericardium (epicardium) covers the hearts outer surface.

Parietal pericardium lines the inner surface of the pericardial sac that surrounds the heart.

Pericardial fluid acts as a lubricant reducing friction.

The clear tissue being

Lifted up by the scalpel Is the pericardium

The clear tissue being Lifted up by the scalpel Is the pericardium

Pericarditis

Various pathogens may infect the pericardium.

The inflamed pericardial surfaces rub against one another. Makes a distinct scratching sound.

Cardiac tamponade could occur due to the increased pericardial fluid in the pericardial

cavity. This condition restricts the

movement of the heart.

Black looking structure is the heart bulging from the pericardial sac. Not only pathogens can cause a cardiac tamponade, but blunt force trauma can also cause it.

Black looking structure is the heart bulging from the pericardial sac. Not only pathogens can cause

Superficial Heart Anatomy

When not filled with blood, the outer portion of each atrium deflates and becomes a lumpy, wrinkled flap.

This extension is called the auricle (looks like an external ear).

The coronary sulcus, marks the boundary between the atria and ventricles.

Even though this is the posterior view of the heart, the coronary sulcus goes around the

Even though this is the posterior view of the heart, the coronary sulcus goes around the entire heart to separate the upper and

lower chambers.

The anterior and posterior interventricular sulci are shallower depressions that mark the boundary line between the left and right ventricles.

These areas usually contain a large amount of fat. The sulci contain the arteries and veins that feed the heart.

The heart has an attached base and a free apex.

The inferior tip is called the apex.

In a typical adult the heart measures approximately 12.5 cm

from the base to the tip.

The apex reaches to the fifth intercostal space, 7.5 cm to the

left of the midline.

Interventricular septum

Interventricular

septum

Interventricular septum
Superior Vena Cava. Brings blood from the head, neck and shoulders to the right atrium Inferior

Superior

Vena Cava. Brings blood

Superior Vena Cava. Brings blood from the head, neck and shoulders to the right atrium Inferior

from the head, neck and shoulders to the right atrium

Inferior Vena Cava

Brings blood back

to the right atrium from the rest of the

Superior Vena Cava. Brings blood from the head, neck and shoulders to the right atrium Inferior

body

Interatrial

septum

Interatrial Septum. Lateral view

Interatrial

Septum. Lateral view

Interatrial Septum. Lateral view
The pectinate muscles are prominent muscular ridges found in the atrial walls

The pectinate muscles are prominent muscular ridges found

in the atrial walls

The pectinate muscles are prominent muscular ridges found in the atrial walls

Blood Flow

Right atrium into the right ventricle via the right atrioventricular (AV) valve also called the tricuspid valve.

The opening is bounded by three fibrous tissue cusps, therefore called the tricuspid valve.

This tissue is braced by the tendinous chordae tendineae connected to papillary muscles

1 2 3 Chordae tendineae Papillary muscle
1
2
3
Chordae tendineae
Papillary muscle
Tricuspid Valve

Tricuspid Valve

Right Heart

Blood leaving the right ventricle enters the pulmonary trunk passing through the pulmonary semilunar valve.

The pulmonary trunk divides into the left and right pulmonary arteries.

These arteries are the only arteries in the body that carries oxygen poor blood.

This blood is then carried to the lungs for re- oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide.

Remember you are

looking at the right side of the heart.

Remember you are looking at the right side of the heart.

# 5 are the pulmonary

semilunar valve. #11 is the pulmonary trunk.

# 5 are the pulmonary semilunar valve. #11 is the pulmonary trunk.

The left and right pulmonary returns the blood to the left atrium.

These are the only veins in the body that carries oxygen rich blood.

Blood will then pass from the left atrioventricular valve (AV)

or also called the bicuspid or mitral valve.

From the left ventricle blood will then pass through the aortic semilunar valve into the ascending aorta into the systemic circulatory system

Pulmonary Veins

Pulmonary Veins

#8 is the aortic semilunar valve

#8 is the aortic

semilunar valve

Ventricular Differences

The anatomical differences between the

right and left ventricles are as follows: The right ventricle is relatively thin. The left

ventricle has a massive muscular wall.

Right Ventricle Heart Wall Left Ventricle Heart Wall

Right Ventricle Heart Wall

Left

Ventricle

Heart

Wall

Atrioventricular Valves

Prevent backflow of blood from the ventricles back into the atria.

Chordae tendineae and papillary muscles play an important role in this process.

Ventricular diastole the ventricles relax and the ventricles refill.

The chorae tendineae are loose and offer no resistance to the flow of blood.

During ventricular systole the ventricles begin to contract blood moving back towards the atria swings the cusps

together closing the valves.

The chordae tendineae and papillary muscles stops the cusps from swinging into the atria.

If those two structures are cut or damaged the valves act as swinging doors, and there is backflow, or

regurgitation.

Mitral valve damage can especially occur in women

after pregnancy.

The Heart Wall

Bulk of the heart consists of the muscular myocardium and endocardium, that covers the inner surface of the heart.

The epicardium is the visceral pericardium that covers the outer surface of the heart.

Cardiac muscle cells are interconnected by intercalated discs which convey the

force of contraction from cell to cell and

conduct action potentials.

Heart Blood Supply

Coronary circulation demands high oxygen and nutrients for the cardiac muscle cells.

Coronary arteries originate at the base of the ascending aorta.

Interconnections between arteries called anastomoses ensure a constant blood supply.

Anastomoses

Anastomoses

Coronary Circulation

Coronary Circulation 20-40

20-40

Coronary Circulation

20-41
20-41

Great, Posterior, small, Anterior, Middle Cardiac

Veins carry blood from

The coronary capillaries

To the coronary sinus.

Left coronary artery supplies The left ventricle. Circulflex

Curves left meeting with

The right coronary artery. Left anterior decending Supplies the posterior Decending artery

(interventricular).

Coronary bypass operation

Angioplasty
Angioplasty

Location of Heart Valves

Location of Heart Valves 20-45

20-45