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Research is the formal, systematic
application of the scientific method to the study
of problems; educational research is the formal,
systematic application of the scientific method
to the study of educational problems.
The major difference between
educational research and some other types of
scientific research is the nature of the
phenomena studied. It can be quite difficult to
explain, predict, and control situations
involving human beings, by far the most
complex of all organisms.
The scientific method is an orderly process that entails
recognition and definition of a problem, formulation of
hypotheses, collection and analysis of data, and statement of
conclusions regarding confirmation or disconfirmation of the

The research process usually comprises four general steps:

a.Selection and definition of a problem
b.Execution of research procedures
c.Analysis of data
d.Drawing and stating conclusions
Different Approaches to Educational Research :
1. The Continuum of Research Philosophies
2. Quantitative Research
3. Qualitative Research
Table 1.1 Overview of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Characteristics

Quantitative Research Qualitative Research

Type of data collected Numerical data Nonnumerical narrative and vidual
Research problem Hypothesis and research Research problems and methods
procedures stated before evoolve as understanding of topic
beginning the study deepens
Manipulation of context Yes No

Sample size Larger Smaller

Research procedures Relies oon statistical Relies on categorizing and

procedures organizing data into patterns to
produce a descriptive,narrative
Participant interaction Little interaction Extensive interaction

Undelying belief We live in a stable and Meaning is situated in a particular

prediictable world that we can perspective or context that is
measure,understand,and different for people and
generalize about groups,therefore,the world has
Classification of Research by Method :
1. Quantitative Approaches
-Survey Research
-Correlational Research
-Cusal-comparative Research
-Experimental Research
-Single-subject Research
2. Qualitative Approaches
-Narrative Research
-Ethnographic Research
-Case Study Research
The Qualitative Research Process
Qualitative research generally involves six steps:
Identifying a research topic, reviewing the literature,
selecting participants, collecting data, analyzing and
interpreting data, and reporting and evaluating the

Classification of Research by Purpose :

1. Bassic and Applied Research
2. Evaluation Research
3. Research and development (R&D)
4. Action Research
The Ethics of Educational Research
Ethical considerations play a role in all research
studies, and all researchers must be aware of and attend to
ethical considerations in their research.

Gaining Entry to the Research Site

It is rarely possible to conduct research without the
cooperation of other people. The first step in acquiring
needed cooperation is to follow required procedures in the
chosen site.