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• Experimentally is much simpler than that

of gas adsorption.
• Theoretically is more complicated than
that of gas adsorption.
– Since involves:
• competition between solut(s) and solvent.
• competition between adsorbent and solvent.
Active carbon adsorption
• Adsorption is a process where a solid is used for
removing a soluble substance from the water. In
this process active carbon is the solid. Active
carbon is produced specifically so as to achieve a very
big internal surface (between 500 - 1500 m2/g). This big
internal surface makes active carbon ideal for
adsorption. Active carbon comes in two
variations: Powder Activated Carbon (PAC) and
Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). The GAC
version is mostly used in water treatment, it can
adsorb the following soluble substances:
• Adsorption of organic, non-polar
substances such as:
– Mineral oil
– Poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PACs)
– (Chloride) phenol
• Adsorption of halogenated substance: I,
Br, Cl, F
• Odour
• Taste
• Various fermentation products
Examples from active carbon in
different processes:
• Ground water purification
• The de-chlorination of process water
• Water purification for swimming pools
• Water is pumped in a column which contains active carbon, this
water leaves the column through a draining system.

• The activity of an active carbon column depends on the

temperature and the nature of the substances.

• Water goes through the column constantly, which gives an

accumulation of substances in the filter. For that reason the
filter needs to be replace periodically. A used filter can be
regenerated in different ways, granular carbon can be
regenerated easily by oxidizing the organic matter. The
efficiency of the active carbon decreases by 5 - 10% 1). A small
part of the active carbon is destroyed during the
regeneration process and must be replaced.

• If you work with different columns in series, you can assure that
you will not have a total exhaustion of your purification system.
What is the difference between adsorption and

• When a substance is attached to a surface

is is called adsorption, is this case the
substance is attached to the internal
surface of active carbon.
• When a substance is absorbed in a
different medium it is called absorption.
When a gas is taken in a solution it is
called absorption.
1. Zero adsorption: uniform mixture
composition right up to the solid
2. Positively adsorption: one component at
the surface is greater than its in the bulk.
3. negatively adsorption: one component at
the surface is lower than its in the bulk.
4. 3 is the consequency of 2.
Isoterm adsorpsi untuk:
a. Bensena dari dlm pelarut metanol pada karbon.
b. kloroform dari dlm CCl4 pada karbon.

a) b)

Bensena teadsorpsi (mol/g) chloroform teadsorpsi (mol/g)

Cpermukaan > Cbulk

Cpermukaan < Cbulk
Cpermukaan < Cbulk

0 1 0 1
Fraksi mol bensena Fraksi mol chloroform
pada kesetimbangan pada kesetimbangan
The adsorption of acetic acid on charcoal is
studied using both the Freundlich isotherm
and the Langmuir isotherm.

The amount of acetic acid (adsorbate)

adsorbed per gram of charcoal (adsorbent)
will depend on the surface area of the
charcoal, the temperature of the solution,
and the adsorbate concentration in solution.
The adsorption will be followed by titrating
the acetic acid not adsorbed by the charcoal,
then determining the amount adsorbed by
Freundlich vs Langmuir isotherm

• Isotherms (plots of moles of adsorbate adsorbed per

gram of adsorbent versus solution concentration) will be
constructed, then compared with two models:
(a). the Freundlich isotherm,
where K and a are empirical constants, n is the number of moles adsorbed
per gram of charcoal, and c is the solution concentration, and

(b). the Langmuir isotherm,

c/n = c/nM + 1/(k nM)
where nM is the number of moles required to cover one gram of charcoal
with a monolayer of adsorbate, and k is a function of temperature.
Isoterm adsorpsi asam lemak
A). Dlm pelarut toluena pada silika gel
B). Dlm pelarut air pada karbon

• A) B)

propionat x/m

Butirat asetat

c c
• Place approximately 1 g of charcoal into each of seven
dry Erlenmeyer flasks.
• Prepare solutions of 0.15, 0.12, 0.09, 0.06, 0.03 and
0.015 M acetic acid.
• Add 100 mL of a different acetic acid solution to each
flask, with 100 mL of distilled water to the seventh.
• An eighth flask should contain 0.03 M acetic acid, but no
• The flasks should be tightly stoppered, then shaken
periodically for thirty minutes, and allowed to equilibrate
for several hours (preferably overnight) in a water bath
maintained at a constant temperature.
• After equilibration, the samples are filtered (discard the
first 10 mL of filtrate). Titrate two 25 mL aliquots of each
sample with a standardized NaOH solution, using
phenolphthalein as an indicator.
• Determine the final concentration of acetic acid
in each sample, then calculate the number of
moles of acid adsorbed onto the charcoal by
subtracting the final concentration from the initial
concentration, then multiplying by the solution
• Adjust this value, if necessary, if the charcoal is
determined to have residual acidity (the seventh
flask data should tell you this).
• Plot isotherms (x/m vs. c) for each temperature,
then determine whether a Freundlich (log n vs.
log c) or Langmuir (c/n vs. c) isotherm provides
a better fit to the data.