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Reconstruction

Unit 1 Section 1
Page 46-72

“We don't make mistakes, just happy little accidents.”


Objective:

Understanding the effects of Reconstruction.


What is Reconstruction?
● What was Reconstruction?

● How to Achieve that Goal?


○ Reunite the union: Uncharted territory
○ Rebuild the southern economy: How to rebuild on scorched earth?
○ Extend citizenship to African Americans: 13th amendment gave freedom, but how do you give
rights.
(pg 51) Give & Take
Ten Percent Plan Wade-Davis Bill Johnson Plan Reconstruction
1863 1864 1865 Act
1867

President Lincoln Republicans in President Andrew Radical


1863 Congress. 1864 Johnson. 1865 Republicans
1867

10% of voters must Majority of white Majority of white Must disband state
swear loyalty. men must swear men must swear Gov.
Must abolish loyalty. loyalty.
slavery. Former Confederate Must ratify 13th New state
Full pardons. volunteers can hold amendment. Constitution
office or vote. Each state
Wartime debts by appointed a Must ratify 14th
states will not be government amendment.
recognized. Confeds who own African men allowed
20,000 or more in to vote
land need prez Form confed
pardon to vote or officials cannot hold
Millions of landless white people.

Sharecropping - Land Owner chose crop


- Landowners supplied tenants
with food, shelter, tools and
supplies
- Gave portion of crop to
landowner as payment.
- Sharecroppers did not own the
land or crops
- Often became indebted.
Share-Tenancy - Tenants purchased most of
their own tools and supplies
- Tenants kept share of crop, ¼
or ⅓ crop to landowner.
- Tenants owned crops not land.
- Tents were able to save money
to buy own tools.
Tenant
Farming
- Tenant purchase and used own
tools
- Paid landowners for use of land
- Tenants owned crops not land
- Able to save money to
purchase own land.
Rise of Hate
Johnson as President
Jim Crow
- Redeemers.
- Compromise of 1877: Rutherford B. Hayes wins election but South regains
control.
- Ku Klux Klan
- Jim Crow Laws: Focus to keep whites and African Americans segregated.
- Restrictions on African Americans Voting Rights:
- Poll Tax: Paying a tax to vote.
- Literacy Test or understanding test.
- Grandfather Clause: as long as your grandfathers had voted prior to 1866 or 67.
- Violence
- All- White primaries
- Secret ballots
- Property tests: only people who owned property could vote.

- Plessy V. Ferguson (1896): Scotus voting to uphold laws, separate but equal.
Civil Right
- Freedmen’s Bureau acts: Gov’t agency to help Victims
- Civil Rights act of 1866: Citizenship to African
Americans outlaws black codes
- Reconstruction act of 1867: Divides Confeds into
military districts.
- 14th Amendment: citizenship and stops states from
taking away rights.
- Fifteenth Amendment: cannot deny anyone the right to
vote.
- Enforcement Act of 1870: federal crime to intimidate
voters.
- Civil Rights act of 1875: Right to ride trains and use
public facilities.
Effects of
Reconstruction
- Union Restored
- African Americans gain citizenship and
voting rights.
- South economy and infrastructure are
improved.
- Southern States Establish Public School
system
- Ku Klux Klan and other groups form
- Sharecropping takes hold.
African Americans
Leaders & Reforms
Pg 70-71, 171-174
Gilded Age: 1865 ish- 1914 ish
Effects of Plessy v.
Ferguson
Differing Opinions:
Booker T. Washington W.E.B DuBois

- Believed the way to stop discrimination - Believed that the only way Blacks would
was for African Americans to concentrate achieve full equality was to get a good
on economic goals rather that political education.
goals was - He believed that the only way black
- He wanted to strengthen the race from the Americans could gain civil rights was
inside through protest and activism.
- He believed economic security would lead - He disagreed with Washington’s desire to
to greater civil rights and better race earn respect of whites first and hope that
relations. rights would follow.
- Started the Tuskegee Institute
Rise of Organizations

NAACP Urban League


(National Association for
Advancement of Colored People)

- Came out of the Niagara Movement. - Came out of 100 separate


- NAACP goal was to “physically free churches and clubs all focusing
from Peonage.
on employment and relief efforts.
- “Mentally free from ignorance”
- “Politically free from - Focused on helping poorer
disenfranchisement” working class.
- “Socially free from insult” - Provided clothing, books, and
- Using courts system to fight inequality. sent children to school.
- Focusing on Equal access to housing - Helped factory and domestic
and professional careers.
servants find jobs.
- W.E.B DuBois, Jane Adams, Ray
Stannard Baker, Florence Kelley.
Other Civil Rights Groups Forming
Anti-Defamation League Partido Liberal Mexicano Society of American
1913 (PLM) Indians
Mutualistas

- Came about because - Formed in Arizona - Formed to promote


the growing Anti- - Offered many of the indian rights.
Semitism. same services at the - Established in 1911
- Goal is to defend Urban League. - Protest against
groups against - These groups helped federal indian policies
physical and verbal to provided legal
attacks, false assistance also
statements and to formed insurance
secure fair treatment companies.
of all citizens.
African American Historical Figure Proj
● Background Information on your figure. ( where they were born, when etc…
what do we need to know about this person to understand them and where
they came from)
● What got this figure into the spotlight?
● Explain why this person is a significant figure and their impact on the civil rights
movement.
● 2 min
● 1 Slide, 3 photos that you can refer to throughout the presentation.
● Due Nov 12