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Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Surface Treatment
For Material Properties

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 1
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Major Surface Treatments


• Finishing and Polishing – covered previously
• Coatings
– Conversion Coatings (oxidation, anodizing)
– Thermal Coatings (carburizing – flame spraying)
– Metal Coatings (electrochemical, electroless)
– Deposition
• Physical Vapor Deposition
• Chemical Vapor Deposition
– Organic

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 2
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Conversion Coatings
• Oxidation
• Phosphate Coatings
• Chrome Coatings

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 3
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Conversion Coatings - Oxidation


• Gun-bluing
– Heat steel to 700 deg F in steam
or oil
• Oxidation – Blue coating offers some
corrosion resistance, but little
– Not all oxides are wear benefit
• Chemical Baths – similar in nature
detrimental – many are to gun-bluing
tightly adhering leading to • Black Oxide – chemical
passivation and hardening application
– Typically applied to steel, copper
of surface and stainless steel
• Al2O3 • Anodizing – electrochemical
conversion
• Chromium in Stainless steel
– Usually done to Aluminum
rapidly corrodes to – 2-25 mm thick typically
passivate the surface – Multiple colors possible
– Improved Corrosion and Wear
Resistance
Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018
PSG College of Technology 4
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Conversion Coatings – Phosphate


Coating
• Immersion in a Zn-P bath with Phosphoric acid
causes growth of a crystalline zinc phosphate layer
– Iron, Zinc or Manganese Phosphate layer formed
• Typically applied to C-steel, low alloy steel and cast
irons
– Sometimes applied to Zinc, Cadmium, Aluminum and Tin
• Typically very thin ~ 2.5 mm

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 5
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Conversion Coatings – Chrome


Coating
• Food cans
• Immersion in a chromic acid bath (pH ~ 1.8) with
other chemicals to coat surface
• Known carcinogen chemicals used, so alternatives
are currently under research
– Molybdate chemicals currently best subsititute for
aluminum coatings
• Very good to minimize atmospheric corrosion
– Many household goods – screws, hinges (yellow brown
appearance)
• Typically very thin < 2.5 mm

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 6
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Thermal Treatments
• Surface Heat Treatment
• Diffusion Coating
• Hot-Dip Coatings
• Weld Overlay Coatings

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 7
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Thermal Treatments – Surface Heat


Treatment
• Basic concept is to heat the surface to austenitic
range, then quench it to form surface martensite -
workpiece is steel
• Heating Methods
– Flame Treatment
– Induction Heating
• Copper coil wraps around part to heat by induction
– Electron Beam or Laser Beam Hardening
• Typically heat small area and allow the bulk solid heat capacity to
quench the small heated area

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 8
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Thermal Treatments – Diffusion


Coating
• With low carbon steel, the surface can be enriched by
diffusion of C or N into surface
• Carburizing
– Heat steel to austenitic range (850-950 ºC) in a carbon rich
environment, then quench and temper
• Nitriding
– Nitrogen diffusion into steels occurs around 500-560 ºC to form a
thin hard surface
– Good for Cr, V, W, and Mo steels. Will embrittle surface of
Aluminum.
• Metal Diffusion
– Chromizing – Chromium diffuses into surface to form corrosion
resistant layer.
• Take care with carbon steels as surface will decarburize
– Aluminizing – Used to increase the high temperature corrosion
resistance of steels and superalloys
Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018
PSG College of Technology 9
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Thermal Treatments –
Hot-Dip Coatings
• These coatings are used for corrosion protection
• Galvanizing
– Parts are dipped into a molten zinc bath
• Galv-annealing
– Galvanized parts are then heat treated to ~500 ºC to form Fe-Zn inter-
metallic
• Used for metals that need spot welded to protect copper electrode from alloying
with zinc and reducing its life
• Zn-Al Coatings
– Gives a different corrosion protect and a more lustrous appearance (can
greatly reduce spangles easily observed on galvanized parts)
• Aluminum Coatings
– Alloyed with Si
– Coatings used on steel for high temperature applications that need a
lustrous appearance
• Example – Automobile exhaust
Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018
PSG College of Technology 10
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Thermal Treatments –
Weld Overlay coatings
• Typically used to improve wear resistance by creating a hard
surface over a tough bulk body
• Hard Facing
– Weld buildup of parts – alloy composition controls final properties
– Examples – cutting tools, rock drills, cutting blades
– Cladding of material for corrosion resistance
• Thermal spraying
– Molten particle deposition – a stream of molten metal particles are
deposited on the substrate surface
– Major difference from hard facing is that the surface of the substrate is
not subjected to welding. Instead it just undergoes a bonding process
with the molten particles.

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 11
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Metal Coatings
• Electroplating
• Electroless Coatings
• Metallizing of Plastics and Ceramics

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 12
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Metal Coatings - Electroplating


• Used to increase wear and corrosion resistance
• Electrochemical process used to create a thin coating
bonding to substrate
• Process is slow so coating thickness can be closely
controlled (10-500 mm)
• Applications
– Tin and Zinc are deposited on steel for further working
– Zinc and Cadmium are deposited on parts for corrosion resistance
(Cadmium is toxic and can not be used for food applications)
– Copper is deposited for electrical contacts
– Nickel for corrosion resistance
– Chromium can be used to impart wear resistance to dies and reduce
adhesion to workpieces such as aluminum or zinc
– Precious metals for decoration or electronic devices

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 13
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Metal Coatings – Electroless


Coatings
• Part is submerged into an aqueous bath filled
with metal salts, reducing agents and catalysts
– Catalysts reduce metal to ions to form the coating
• Excellent for complex geometries as
deposition is uniform across surface regardless
of geometry (except very sharp corners (0.4
mm radii))

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 14
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Metal Coatings -Electroless Nickel


• Has the appearance of Plating
stainless steel
• Autocatalytic immersion
process
• Key characteristics:
– Heat treatable coating (to 68
Rc) very hard
– Non-porous
– Corrosion resistant
– .001” thick typical
– Withstand load to 45 ksi
• Can be applied to:
– steel and stainless steel,
iron, aluminum, titanium,
magnesium, copper, brass,
bronze, and nickel
Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018
PSG College of Technology 15
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Electroless Nickel vs. Chrome Plating


ELECTROLESS NICKEL HARD CHROME

METAL DISTRIBUTION VERY GOOD POOR


1,000 HOURS 400 HOURS
CORROSION RESISTANCE
ASTM B117 ASTM B117
HARDNESS:
AS DEPOSITED 48-52 Rc 64-69 Rc
HEAT TREAT 70 Rc 48-52 Rc

MELTING POINT 1800oF 2900oF


WEAR RESISTANCE GOOD VERY GOOD
CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION:
DYNAMIC 0.19 0.16
STATIC 0.20 0.17
DUCTILITY 1-2% Very Low Almost 0
EFFLUENT COST RELATIVELY LOW HIGH
DEPOSITION RATE
.0002 - .0003 .001 - .002
(PER HOUR PER HOUR)
EFFECTIVE OF HYDROGEN
EMBRITTLEMENT ON PLATED FAIR/NOT SERIOUS USUALLY SERIOUS
COMPONENTS

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 16
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Metal Coatings –
Metallizing of Plastics and Ceramics
• Poor adhesion is the major challenge (As in all
coating processes, however it is more
challenging in this case.)
• Applications
– Decorative (plumbing fixtures, automotive parts),
reflectivity (headlights), electrical conduction
(electronic touchpads), and EMF shielding

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 17
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Vapor Deposition
• Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
– Thermal PVD
– Sputter Deposition
– Ion plating
• Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 18
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Physical Vapor Deposition –


Thermal PVD
• Thermal PVD – also called Vacuum Deposition
– Coating material (typically metal) is evaporated by melting
in a vacuum
– Substrate is usually heated for better bonding
– Deposition rate is increased though the use of a DC current
(substrate is the anode so it attracts the coating material)
– Thin ~0.5 mm to as thick as 1 mm.

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 19
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Physical Vapor Deposition – Sputter


Deposition

• Vacuum chamber is usually backfilled with Ar gas


• Chamber has high DC voltage (2,000-6,000 V)
• The Ar becomes a plasma and is used to target the
deposition material. The impact dislodges atoms from the
surface (sputtering), which are then deposited on the
substrate anode
• If the chamber is full of oxygen instead of Ar, then the
sputtered atoms will oxidize immediately and an oxide will
deposit (called reactive sputtering)

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 20
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Physical Vapor Deposition – Ion


Plating
• Combination of thermal PVD and sputtering
• Higher rate of evaporation and deposition
• TiN coating is made this way (Ar-N2
atmosphere)
– The gold looking coating on many cutting tools to
decrease the friction, increase the hardness and
wear resistance

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 21
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Chemical Vapor Deposition

• Deposition of a compound (or element) produced by a


vapor-phase reduction between a reactive element and gas
– Produces by-products that must be removed from the process as
well
• Process typically done at elevated temps (~900ºC)
– Coating will crack upon cooling if large difference in thermal
coefficients of expansion
– Plasma CVD done at 300-700ºC (reaction is activated by plasma)
• Typical for tool coatings
• Applications
– Diamond Coating, Carburizing, Nitriding, Chromizing, Aluminizing
and Siliconizing processes
– Semiconductor manufacturing

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 22
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Organic Coatings - paint


• Enamels
– Form film primarily by solvent evaporation
– 30 % Volatile Organic Content (VOC)
• Lacquers – solvent evaporation
• Water-base paints – water evaporation,
therefore much better
• Powder Coating – superior – more detail to
follow

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 23
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Powder
Coating
• Fully formulated paint
ground into a fine
powder
• Powder is sprayed onto
part, retained by static
electricity
• Heat cured onto part
• Can virtually eliminate
VOCs

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 24
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Teflon and dry lubricant coatings

• Sprayed, dipped or
tumbled to coat,
followed by heating to
bond
• Key characteristics:
– Low friction coefficient
(0.02 – 0.08)
– Can sustain load of 250
ksi

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 25
Benjamin Shiloh Davidson

Summary
• Don’t overlook coatings importance to overall
product performance
• Coating technology is very specialized – get a
couple of expert opinions before committing

Department of Automobile Engineering 09AE05 – AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURING 11/13/2018


PSG College of Technology 26