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Maintenance of

Centrifugal and
Positive displacement
Pumps
There are two conditions where in Centrifugal Pumps
requires maintenance.
During Normal operation:
 Adjustments of the Gland packing.
 Replacement of the Mechanical Seal
 Rectification of the leaky Flanged Joints
 Lubrication of the Bearings
 Preventive maintenance
 Condition Monitoring

Maintenance aspects after Shut Down


 Break Down maintenance.
 Overhauling during Annual Shut Down or as per the laid down
frequency.
Maintenance jobs normally carried during Operation:
Adjustments/ Replacement of Gland Packing:

A Pump stuffing Box Gland packing rolls and the stuffing Box are
shown in the following figures.

Gland Packing rings are cut out of the bulk packing as shown in
subsequent slides.
Packing Size: Stuffing Box ID – Shaft or Shaft Sleeve OD / 2
Stuffing Box type Shaft Sealing on a Double Suction Centrifugal
Pump.
Gland Packing in a stuffing box become soft due continuous leakage
through it which is essential for cooling of the gland packing. As it
become soft with the passage of time gland packing may require to
be adjusted or replaced. While adjusting care must taken for even
tightness of the gland follower and if removed for replacement
shaft and stuffing box should not be spoiled.
Even tightness of the gland follower
preferably 1/6th turn of the gland follower
nut at a time. Do not over tight. Keep
leakage allowance.

Use packing extractors for removal of the


old packing rings. This will prevent
scratches on the shaft and interior of the
stuffing box.

A pair of the packing extractor will work


much better for removal of the old packing
rather using bent wires. Clean shaft and
stuffing box thoroughly before repacking.
Taking shaft run out is very essential.
Cut packing rings either straight cut or diagonal cut as required
by wrapping packing rope on the mandrel.

While installing stagger the packing joints for improving sealing


or so that no leakage should pass the packing joint.
Install packing rings one by one
and each packing ring must be
compacted individually so that
it participate in sealing.

Some stuffing boxes use metal


lantern ring either for leak
collection or inserting sealing /
cooling fluid through it.

Keep gland follower 80% outside


the stuffing box cavity as
allowance for future adjustment.
All leaky flanged joints may be retightened to stop leakage or if
leakage do not stop change the gasket. While changing the gasket
take care.

Flanges

Gasket

Flange Bolts
 Use recommended gasket
 Cut to proper size
 Clean gasket and flange faces both with suitable cleaner
 Ensure that the flange are parallel and do not have any damage
mark on the sealing face.
 Tighten the gasket uniformly and equal to the required torque.
 Leave a tang outside for holding the gasket while installing and
to facilitate removal.
Replacement of the Mechanical Seal
 Remove the leaky seal and clean all components including static seals.
 Carryout inspection of the seal components
 Replace the defective parts particularly all O-Rings.
 Either lap seal face rings within 2 to 3 light bands or draw the new seal
faces.
 Inspect the Seal sleeve.
 Assemble the seal as per the maintenance manual Measure the free
height of the seal head.
 Carry out seal faces cleaning.
 Install the seal head over the shaft.
 Assemble the seal seat in the seal gland.
 Install the seal gland over the seal head and bolt.
 All o-Rings should be lightly coated within silicone grease before
mounting in the groove.
 Coat the faces of the seal rings also with very light film of mineral oil
before assembling.
 Maintain cleanliness while assembling the meal.
A mechanical seal can be used in place of
Conventional gland/Compression packing for the
following advantages.
1) The leakage past the mechanical seal is
1/100th of a gland packing.
2) No loss of power as is there in gland packing
3) Minimal friction hence minimum wear
between seal faces
4) Seal maintains sealing even with little bit if
misalignment.
5) No wear of shaft sleeve
6) No frequent adjustments required
7) Can be used for hot, volatile, corrosive,
chemicals fluids.
Only Disadvantage:
It requires careful , skillful and clean installation.

In the figure has been shown an unbalanced and


balanced mechanical seal
A practical mechanical seal
In preventive maintenance following jobs are carried as per the
frequencies mentioned against each check.
Daily:
General cleaning all around the pump
See that all gages are working
Check seal cooling supply
Check oil level in the bearing housing
Feel vibration, high temperature and noise from all rotating parts
Check leakages
Fortnightly:
Top up the oil in the bearing housing
Adjust packing if required
Feel Vibration
Quarterly:
Take vibration readings by vibration analyzer
Measure actual temperature at the bearing housings.
Feel coupling vibrations at the motor inboard and outboard bearings
Observe discharge flow and pressure
Clean strainer
Clean lub. Oil strainer
Half Yearly:
Everything as above
Check alignment by instrument
Annual:
Strip down the pump if required as the vibration levels observed.
Shaft Inspection:
Wearing rings inspection:
Gland bush and lantern ring inspection
Bearing inspection.
Inspect coupling flexible elements.
Check Motor bearings.
Check rubbing between rotor and stator winding

Casing, Impeller and Suction and Discharge valve:


Inspect impeller and casing for major erosion
Service foot Valve
Service suction, Discharge and check valve
Static and Dynamic balancing:
Carryout static and dynamic balancing of the Pump and motor rotor and follow
recommended standards.

Carryout Assembly as the procedure and record all critical clearances, components
replaced, bearing numbers, Oil used and type thickness and materials of the gaskets
used.
Trouble Shooting of
centrifugal Pumps
TROUBLE CAUSE

Does not deliver any liquid Insufficient priming liquid


Insufficient pump speed
Excessive discharge
pressure (such as a partially
closed valve or some other
obstruction in the discharge
line)
Excessive suction lift
Clogged impeller passages
Wrong direction of rotation
Clogged suction screen (if
used)
Ruptured suction line
Loss of suction pressure
Insufficient capacity Air leakage into the suction
line
Insufficient speed of the
Crackling noise from the
pump
pump casing
Excessive suction lift
Clogged impeller passages
Excessive discharge
pressure
Mechanical defects (such as
worn wearing rings,
impellers, stuffing box
packing , or sleeves)
Does not develop enough Insufficient speed of the pump
discharge pressure
Air or gas in the liquid being
pumped
Mechanical defects (such as
worn wearing rings, impellers,
leaking mechanical seals, and
sleeves)
Works for a while and then fails Air leakage into the suction line
to deliver liquid
Air leakage in the stuffing
boxes
Clogged water seal passages
Insufficient liquid on the
suction side
Excessive heat in the liquid
being pumped
Takes too much power and Operation of the pump at
the motor overheats excess capacity and
insufficient discharge
pressure
Misalignment
Bent shaft
Excessively tight stuffing
box packing
Worn wearing rings
Other mechanical defects
Vibration Misalignment
Bent shaft
Clogged, eroded, or other-
wise unbalanced impeller
Lack of rigidity in the
foundation
Insufficient venting
(Positive suction head)
Insufficient suction pressure may also cause vibration, as well
as noisy operation and fluctuating discharge pressure.