You are on page 1of 96

Human Digestive System

Casey Cuerda
David Paul Mahinay
Jomar Usop
Rosenda Cantomayor
Digestion
involves both mechanical and chemical processes.
 Mechanical Process
- physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces, which provides a
greater surface area for contact with digestive secretions. Involves Chew,
Tear, Grind, Mash, Mix.
 Chemical Process
- splitting of complex, nonabsorbable food molecules into small,
absorbable nutrient molecules by the addition of water (hydrolysis).
Hydrolysis
Nonabsorbable Digestive enzymes Absorbable
food + Water nutrient
Molecules molecules
Digestion
Anumber of different types of enzymes are
involved in digestion. Each type of digestive
enzyme acts on a particular type of food
molecule and speeds up its breakdown into
smaller molecules. A series of digestive
reactions involving several digestive enzymes
from different parts of the digestive system
are usually required to break down complex
food molecules into absorbable nutrients.
Major Organs of
the Digestive
System
Alimentary Canal
General Characteristics
A muscular tube about 9 m (29 ft) in length that
extends from the mouth to the anus. Various
portions of the alimentary canal are specialized to
perform different digestive functions.
Structure of the wall
Serosa (Serous layer)
 The outer layer.
 It is formed of the visceral peritoneum and is continuous
with the parietal peritoneum, which lines the inner
abdominal wall.
 Cells of the peritoneum secrete serous fluid, which keeps
the membrane surfaces moist and reduces friction as
parts of the alimentary canal rub against each other and
the abdominal wall.
Structure of the wall
Muscular layer
 Lies just under the serosa.
 Muscle fibers of the outer layer are arranged
longitudinally. Their contractions shorten the tube.
 Muscle fibers of the inner layer are arranged circularly
around the tube. Their contractions constrict the tube.
Contractions of these muscular layers mix food with
digestive secretions and move food through the
alimentary canal.
Structure of the wall
Submucosa
 Lies
between the muscular layer and the mucosa. It
contains nerves, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels
embedded in loose connective tissue.
Structure of the wall
Mucosa
 The innermost layer.
 The mucosa has different functions in different parts of
the digestive tract. In some regions, it secretes only
mucus, which protects underlying cells. In others, it
secretes mucus and digestive fluids containing enzymes,
and it absorbs nutrients.
Movements
 Mixing movement- involve alternating rhythmic
contractions of muscle fibers in short segments of the
alimentary canal. This ripple like contractions mix food
substances with digestive secretions.
 Propelling movements- the movements that propel food
through the alimentary canal are called peristalsis.

Peristalsis- contraction of circular muscle fibers produces a


ring-like constriction that moves along a alimentary canal in
a wavelike manner, pushing food in front of it.
MOUTH
 is involved in the intake of
food, mechanically breaking
it into small pieces, mixing
it with saliva, and
swallowing it.
 The mouth is surrounded
by the cheeks, plate and
tongue.
CHEEKS
 forms the lateral walls of the mouth.
 Skin covers their outer surfaces, and
nonkeratinized squamous epithelium lines their
inner surfaces.
 Contractions of muscles located in the cheeks
produce facial expressions.
 The anterior portions of the cheeks form the
lips, which surround the opening of the mouth.
PALATE
 forms the roof of the mouth and separates the
oral cavity from the nasal cavity.
 The anterior portion is known as the hard palate.
 The soft palate ends posteriorly in a cone-
shaped uvula that hangs downward at the back
of the oral cavity.
 The uvula is very sensitive to touch stimuli.
TONGUE
 forms the floor of the oral cavity. It is composed
primarily of the skeletal muscle that is covered by a
mucous membrane.
 The upper surface of the tongue contains numerous
tiny projections called papillae that give a rough
texture to the tongue and aid in its manipulation of
food.
 The tongue moves the food about during chewing and
aids in mixing it with saliva. In swallowing, the tongue
pushes food posteriorly into the pharynx.
T
E
E
T
H
TEETH
 are important accessory digestive structures that
mechanically break food into smaller pieces during
mastication or chewing.
 Humans developed two sets of teeth:
1. Deciduous teeth, the first set, start to erupt through
the gums at about six months age. Central incisors come in
first, and second molars erupt last. There are 20 deciduous
teeth, 10 in each jaw, and all of them are in place by three
years of age.
TEETH
2. The permanent teeth begin appearing at about six
years of age when the first molars (six-year molars)
erupt. All of the permanent teeth, except the third
molars, are in place by age 16. The third molars (wisdom
teeth) erupt between 17 and 21 years of age, or they
may never emerge.
SALIVARY
GLANDS
SALIVARY GLANDS
• Secretes saliva into the mouth, where it is
mixed with food during chewing
• The presence of food in the mouth activates
neural reflexes that stimulate the flow of saliva
• The sense of taste is dependent upon saliva
because only dissolved food molecules can
stimulate the taste buds
FUNCTIONS OF SALIVA
1. Binding food particles
2. Dissolving certain foods
3. Cleansing and lubricating the mouth
4. Starting carbohydrate digestion
3 PAIRS OF MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS
1. Parotid
o largest salivary gland
o Located in front of each ear over the masseter
muscle
o Secretes saliva that is rich in amylase
o Secretions are emptied through a duct into the
vestibule of the mouth near the upper second
molars
3 PAIRS OF MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS
2. Submandibular glands
o Found in floor of the mouth
o Produce a watery saliva that contains relatively
little mucus
o Secretions are emptied through ducts into the
anterior part of the mouth at the base of the
lingual frenulum
3 PAIRS OF MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS
3. Sublingual glands
o Lie on the floor of the mouth under tongue
o Smallest of the major salivary glands
o Secretions consist mostly of mucus, and they are
emptied by several ducts into the floor of the
mouth under the tongue
SALIVARY GLANDS
• Mucus helps to hold food particles together during
chewing and swallowing.
• Saliva contains two enzymes:
• Salivary amylase
• A digestive enzyme that speeds up the breakdown of starch and
glycogen
• Lysozyme
• An enzyme that kills certain bacteria
PHARYNX
 Passageway that connects the nasal and oral
cavities with the larynx and esophagus
 Is part of both respiratory and digestive
system.
 Its digestive function is the transport of food
from the mouth to the esophagus during
swallowing
PHARYNX
 The swallowing reflex is activated when food is
pushed into the pharynx by the tongue.
 The soft palate contracts upward, preventing
food from entering the nasal cavity, and directs
food downward into the pharynx.
ESOPHAGUS
 A muscular tube that extends from the pharynx down
through the thoracic cavity and the diaphragm to join
with the stomach.
 The esophageal mucosa produces mucus that
lubricates the esophagus and aids the passage of food.
STOMACH
 A pouchlike portion of the
alimentary canal.
 lies just below the diaphragm
in the upper left quadrant of
the abdomen.
 Functions of stomach:
– Temporary storage of food
– Mixing food with gastric juice
– Starting the digestion of
proteins
STRUCTURE OF THE STOMACH
 Subdivided into four regions:
– Cardiac region ( closest to the heart) is relatively small
area that receives food from the esophagus
– Fundic region expands above the level of the cardiac region
and serves as a temporary storage area
– Pyloric region is the narrow portion located near the
junction with the duodenum.
– Body is the largest region of the stomach, and it is located
between the fundic and pyloric region.
GASTRIC JUICE
 Cells near the opening of the gastric glands secrete
mucus that coats and protects the mucosa from the
action of digestive secretions.
 Chief cells, located at the bottom of the glands,
secrete digestive enzymes
 Parietal cells, located in the mid portion of the glands,
secrete hydrochloric acid.
 Chyme
– is liquified food entering the small intestine from the
stomach
CONTROL OF GASTRIC SECRETION
 The rate of gastric secretion is controlled by both
neural and hormonal means.
 Gastric juice is produced continuously, but its
secretion is greatly increased whenever food is on the
way to, or already in the stomach
 The sight, smell, or thought of appetizing food, food in
the stomach stimulate the transmission of
parasympathetic impulses that increase the secretion
of gastric juice
CONTROL OF GASTRIC SECRETION

 These impulses also stimulate certain stomach


cells to secrete a hormone called gastrin.
 Gastrin is absorbed into the blood and is carried
to stomach mucosal cells, increasing their
secretions.
CONTROL OF GASTRIC SECRETION
A stomach contents are gradually emptied into
the small intestine, there is a decrease in the
frequency of parasympathetic impulses to the
stomach, which reduces the secretion of gastric
juice. When chyme passes from the stomach into
the small intestine, it stimulates the intestinal
mucosa to release two hormones: cholecystokinin
(CCK) and secretin, which reduce the secretion
of gastric juice
Digestion and Absorption
 Food entering the stomach is thoroughly mixed
with gastric juice by ripplelike, mixing
contractions of the stomach wall. Gastric juice
is very acidic (pH 2) due to an abundance of
hydrochloric acid.
Digestion and Absorption
 Pepsin is the most important digestive enzyme in
gastric juice, and it is secreted in an inactive form
that prevents digestion of the cells secreting it.
 Once it is released into the stomach, pepsin is
activated by the strong acidity of gastric juice. Pepsin
acts on proteins and breaks these complex molecules
into smaller molecules called peptides. However,
peptides are still much too large to be absorbed.
Digestion and Absorption
 Rennin is an enzyme in the gastric juice of infants. It
curdles milk proteins, which keeps them in the
stomach longer and makes them more easily digestible
by pepsin.
 Gastric juice also contains a substance known as
intrinsic factor that is essential for the absorption of
vitamin B12 by the small intestine. Except for a few
substances such as water, minerals, some drugs, and
alcohol, little absorption occurs in the stomach.
Pancreas
 produces the hormone insulin that regulates blood
sugar levels
 also help neutralize stomach acid
 Is a small, pennant-shaped gland located posterior to
the pyloric portion of the stomach.
 It is connected by a duct to the inner curve of the
duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
 It’s digestive function is the secretion of pancreatic
juice
Pancreas
 PancreaticJuice is collected by tiny ducts that
enter the pancreatic duct, which leaves the
pancreas and enters the common bile duct just
before the bile duct enters the duodenum.
 Thehepatopancreatic sphincter dilates to allow
poancreatic juice and bile to enter the duodenum.
Control of Pancreatic Secretion

 Pancreatic secretion, like gastrin secretion, is controlled


by both neural and hormonal mechanisms.
 Neural Control is via parasympathetic fibers. When
parasympathetic impulses activate the stomach mucosa,
they also stimulate pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice.
 Hormonal Control of pancreatic secretion results from
two hormones that stimulates different types of
pancreatic cells.
Control of Pancreatic Secretion
 Acid chyme entering the
duodenum stimulates
the intestinal mucosa to
release the hormone
secretin, which is
carried by blood to the
pancreas, where it
stimulates secretion of
pancreatic juice that is
rich in carbonates.
Control of Pancreatic Secretion
 Carbonates neutralize the acidity of the chyme entering
the small intestine.
 Fat-laden chyme stimulates production of cholecystokinin
(CCK) by the intestinal mucosa.
Digestion by Pancreatic Enzymes
 Pancreaticjuice contains enzymes that act on each
of the major classes of energy foods:
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Their digestive
actions occur within the small intestine.
 Pancreatic Amylase
– Like salivary amylase, acts on starch and glycogen,
splitting these polysaccharides into maltose, a
disaccharide.
Digestion by Pancreatic Enzymes
 Pancreatic lipase
– Acts on fats (triglycerides) and splits them into
monoglycerides and fatty acids that are absorbable. A
monoglyceride is a glycerol molecule with one fatty acid
attached.
 Trypsin
– major pancreatic enzyme in pancreatic juice. It splits proteins
into shorter amino acid chains called peptides. Like pepsin in
the stomach, it is secreted in an inactive form and is activated
when mixed with intestinal secretions within the small
intestine.
Liver
 produces bile, which breaks down fats in foods
 Largest gland in the body. It weighs about 1.4 kg
(3 lb) and is dark reddish brown in color.
 Detoxifies poisons and harmful chemicals, such
as alcohol and other drugs; removes worn-out
blood cells; and stores fat, glycogen, iron, and
several vitamins.
Liver
 The liver receives blood from two sources:
– Hepatic Artery
 Brings oxygenated blood to the liver cells.
– Hepatic Portal Vein
 Brings deoxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the
digestive tract.
Liver
 Asblood flows through the liver, liver cells
remove, modify, or add substances to the blood
before it leaves the liver via the hepatic vein.
Liver
Bile
 A yellowish green
pigment.
 Consists of water, bile
salts, bile pigments,
cholesterol, and
minerals.
 Bile Pigments, mostly
bilirubin, are waste
products f hemoglobin
breakdown.
Bile
 Bilesalts are the only bile components that play a
digestive role. When in contact with fatty
substances, they break up the lipid globules into
very small droplets, a process called emulsification.
 Emulsification
– Greatly increases the surface area of the lipid
substances exposed to water and lipid digesting
enzymes.
Release of Bile
 Bile normally enters the duodenum only when
food is present. When the intestine is empty,
the hepatopancreatic sphincter at the base of
the common bile to enter the gallbladder, where
it is stored temporarily.
Release of Bile
Small Intestine
 Isabout 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter and 6.4 m (21
ft) in length.
 Itbegins at the pyloric sphincter of the
stomach, fills much of the abdomen, and empties
into the large intestine. Most of the digestion of
foods and absorption of nutrients occur in the
small intestine.
Small Intestine (Structure)
 Three sequential segments:
– Duodenum
 A very short section, about 25 cm
long, that receives chyme from the
stomach.
– Jejunum
 The middle section, about 2.5 m
long.
– Ileum
 Last and longest segment, which is
about 3.6 m long.
Intestinal juice
 clear to pale yellow, watery secretion composed of
hormones, digestive enzymes, mucus, and neutralizing
substances released from the glands and mucous-
membrane lining of the small and large intestines.
 neutralizes hydrochloric acid coming from
the stomach; releases gastrointestinal hormones into
the bloodstream; and contains digestive enzymes
that facilitate the digestion and absorption of food.
Intestinal juice

http://ib.bioninja.com.au/options/option-d-human-physiology/d2-digestion/digestive-juices.html
Large Intestine
 removes water from the chyme and gets the waste
ready for excretion
 is made up of the colon and the rectum
 Over the surface of the large intestine are longitudinal
muscle fibers called taeniae coli, each about 5 mm wide.
There are sacculations called haustra that are
characteristic features of the large intestine, and
distinguish it from the rest of the intestines.
Large Intestine
 The absorption of water and the formation and
expulsion of feces are major functions of the large
intestine. Bacteria decompose the nondigested
materials.
 Mass peristaltic movements propel the feces into the
rectum, initiating the defecation reflex, which opens
the internal anal sphincter. Voluntary relaxation of the
external sphincter allows expulsion of the feces.
Large Intestine (Structure)
 Consists of three segments:
– Cecum
 Pouchlike, bulges below the ileocecal sphincter.
– Colon
 Forms most of the large intestine, and is subdivided into four segments:
 Ascending colon
 Transverse colon
 Descending colon
 Sigmoid colon
– Rectum
 Short, terminal portion of the large intestine.
Large
Intestine
(Structure)
NUTRIENTS: Sources and Uses
 Nutrients are substances present in foods that are
used in the normal growth and maintenance of the
body. The required nutrients are carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. The liver
plays an important role in the metabolism of various
nutrients.
Carbohydrates
 can also be defined chemically as neutral compounds of
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. 
 come in simple forms such as sugars and in complex
forms such as starches and fiber. The body breaks
down most sugars and starches into glucose,
a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells
lipid
 is chemically defined as a substance that is insoluble in
water and soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. 
 are an important component of living cells. Together
with carbohydrates and proteins, lipids are the main
constituents of plant and animal cells. Cholesterol and
triglycerides are lipids.
 The main biological functions of lipids include storing
energy, signaling, and acting as structural components
of cell membranes
Proteins
 are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units
called amino acids, which are attached to one another
in long chains.
 provide structure and support for cells.
vitamins 
 an organic molecule (or related set of molecules)
which is an essential micronutrient, that
an organism needs in small quantities for the
proper functioning of its metabolism.
 Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the
organism, either at all or not in sufficient
quantities, and therefore must be obtained
through the diet. 
Vitamins
 Some forms of vitamin A function as regulators of cell
and tissue growth and differentiation. The B
complex vitamins function as
enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for
them. Vitamin D has a hormone-like function as a
regulator of mineral metabolism for bones and other
organs. Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants. Both
deficient and excess intake of a vitamin can potentially
cause clinically significant illness; although excess intake
of water-soluble vitamins is less likely to do so.
Minerals
 Are inorganic substances that plants absorb from the soil.
They are present in both plant foods and animal foods since
animal obtain them by eating plants.
Disorders
Inflammatory or Inflammatory
Inflammatory
Disorders
APPENDICITIS
 is an acute inflammation of
the appendix. First
symptoms include referred
pain in the umbilical region
and nausea. Later, pain is
localized in the right lower
quadrant of the abdomen.
 Surgical removal of the
appendix is the standard
treatment.
COLITIS
 is the inflammation of the mucosa of the large
intestine. The cause is unclear, but chronic
stress may contribute to this condition.
 Diarrhea and cramps are typical symptoms.
DIVERTICULITI
S
 is a disorder of the large
intestine.
 is the inflammation of
these diverticula, and it
may cause considerable
pain, bloating or
diarrhea.
HEMORRHOI
DS
 is a condition where one
or more veins in the anal
canal become enlarge
and inflamed.
 Chronic constipation
contributes to the
development of
hemorrhoids.
HEPATITIS
 is inflammation of the
liver, and it may be
caused by several
factors, including viruses,
drugs, or alcohol.
 It is characterized by
jaundice, fever, and liver
enlargement
THERE ARE THREE BASIC TYPES OF HEPATITIS

 HEPATITIS A (infectious hepatitis) is caused by the


hepatitis A virus, which is spread by person-to-person
contact and fecal contamination of food and water.
 HEPATITIS B (serum hepatitis) is caused by the
hepatitis B virus, and it is spread by transfusions,
contaminated needles, saliva, and sexual contact.
 HEPATITIS C is spread by person-to-person contact
and fecal contamination of food and water. Symptoms
are usually mild, with recovery in four to six weeks.
This type of hepatitis is much more serious during the
trimester of pregnancy.
PERIODONTAL
DISEASE
 refer to variety of conditions
characterized by
inflammation, bleeding gums,
and degeneration of the
gingivae, cementum,
periodontal ligaments, and
alveolar bone, which causes
loosening of the teeth.
 Poor dental hygiene
contributes to this condition.
PERITONITIS
 is the acute inflammation of the peritoneum that
lines the abdominal cavity and covers abdominal
organs.
 It may result from bacteria entering the
peritoneal cavity due to contamination in
accidents or by surgery or by ruptured intestine
or appendix.
Noninflammatory
Disorders
CIRRHOSIS
 of the liver is characterized by scarring, which results
from connective tissue replacing destroyed liver cells.
 It may be caused by hepatitis, alcoholisms, nutritional
deficiencies, or liver parasites.
CONSTIPATION
 is a condition where defecation is difficult, and the
feces are hard and dry.
 This results from feces remaining in the colon for a
longer than normal period, which allows more water to
be absorbed.
DENTAL CARIES
 or tooth decay, result from
the excess acid produce by
certain microorganisms that
live in the mouth and use
food residues for their
nutrients.
 Residues of carbohydrates,
especially sugars, nurture
microorganisms that cause
decay.
DIARRHE
A
 is the production of watery
feces due to abnormally
rapid movement of food
residues through the colon.
 Increased peristalsis may
result from a number of
causes, including
inflammation and chronic
stress.
EATING DISORDERS
 result from an obsessive concern about weight
control, especially among young adult females.
 There are two major types of eating disorders:
– ANOREXIA
– BULIMINA
ANOREXIA NERVOSA
 is self-imposed starvation that results in malnutrition
and associated physiological changes.
 Patients with this disorder see themselves as
overweight, although others see them as very thin.
 Death can occur due to the complications of prolonged
starvation.
BULIMINA
 is characterized by frequent overeating and purging
by self-induced vomiting. Fears of being overweight,
depression, and stress are associated factors. The
exact cause is unknown.
 Bulimina may lead to such complications as an
imbalance of electrolytes, erosion of tooth enamel by
stomach acids and constipation.
GALLSTONES
 result from crystallization of cholesterol in bile. They
commonly occur in the gallbladder, but they may be
carried into bile ducts, where they block the flow of
bile. Severe pain, and often jaundice, accompanies such
blockage.
 Treatment may include drugs that dissolve the
gallstones, shock-wave therapy to break up the stones,
or surgical removal of the gallstones and gallbladder.
Facts
 The average person produces 2 pints of saliva every day. That is
32 ounces, or 2 cans of soda.
 The muscles in your esophagus act like a giant wave. That is what
moves food or drinks down to your stomach. This wave action is
called peristalsis.
 Enzymes in your digestive system are what separate food into the
different nutrients that your body needs.
 The gut-brain axis is the close bond that exists between the
digestive system and your brain. Emotions (including stress) and
brain disorders affect how your body digests food.
 Your body can move your food through the digestive system even
while you are standing on your head. It is not connected to
gravity because it works with muscles.
 Platypuses do not have stomachs.
 Stomach growling is called borborygmic and happens all
the time, but it is just louder when your stomach is
empty because there is no food to muffle it.
 Aerobic exercise is the best type of exercise to keep
your digestive tract in shape.
 You burp to release extra air that you swallow if you eat
fast, drink carbonated drinks, or smoke.
 Hiccups can be caused by a change in temperature that
happens suddenly.
That’s all folks!!!

Thank you for Listening