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Clean transportation

system
Hydrogen, hybrid electric vehicles, pure electric, energy storage
systems, potential in Jamaica
Introduction
 Clean transportation systems have been identified as a
major step in achieving carbon emission goals.
 Transportation consumes of 26% of energy used in 2012
 96% of that energy came from petroleum sources
 Transportation contributes 22% CO2 emissions
 The transportation sector is however very complex consisting
of different modes, duties, functions
 light duty, medium duty, heavy duty, and non-highway vehicles;
rail; aircraft; and ships
 Vehicles are used for personal transport, movement of
goods, construction, agriculture, and mining
Introduction
Introduction

 This presentation will focus on:


 Road transportation which was attributed with 16% of CO2 emissions
 Sustainable options include fuel cells, battery electric(PEV), with biofuels another
option that will not be covered
 Hybrid vehicles use petroleum and electric combinations to reduce CO 2 emissions
 Exploring Energy Storage Devices
 Clean transport potential in Jamaica
Brief History of the EV
Electric Vehicles

 First electric car in 1828


 Gain popularity in the 1900’s
 Killed by the model T assembly line 1910’s
 Made modern resurgent in 1970s, with increasing oil price
 Made another resurgent in 1990’s due to city air pollution
 1996 Chevy EV1, 1997 Toyota Prius, 1999 Tesla model S
Electric Vehicles

 There are three basic types of electric vehicles:


 Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FEV)
Battery Electric Vehicles(BEVs)

 A typical BEV is powered entirely by electricity


from the utility grid or renewable source.
 The main components are an electric motor, a
battery pack, inverter, power management
system, and generator.
 Current Battery Electric Vehicles have a range
of 80 to120 miles or more some going up to
265miles on a charge.
 BEVs increases efficiency through “idle off”
turning off when the car stops, and
“regenerative braking” charging the battery
when breaking.
 Electric motors are also inherently more energy-
efficient than gasoline or diesel engines.
Battery Electric Vehicles(BEVs)
 Advantages
 Charging from renewables possible
 No GHG emissions
 High efficient motor
 Number options increasing
 Low maintenance from fewer mechanical parts
 Disadvantages
 Currently expensive batteries
 Low driving range per charge
 Long charging times
 High voltage stored in batteries posses a hazard in an accident
 Poorer handling due to light material construction
HYDROGEN(Hydrogen Fuel Cells Vehicles)
 A hydrogen fuel cell uses the chemical energy of
hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce
electricity.
 electricity, water, and heat are the only products.
 Fuel cells can provide a wide range of potential
applications; they can provide power for systems as
large as a utility power station and as small as a
laptop computer.
 Hydrogen is not considered as a fuel for internal
combustion engines ICEs because the efficiency of a
hydrogen ICE is much lower than a fuel cell ICE.
HYDROGEN(Hydrogen Fuel Cells Vehicles)
 There are several type of fuel cells, using hydrogen and oxygen as fuel
 Alkaline – using Potassium hydroxide solution as electrolyte operating at 150 to
2000C
 Molten Carbonate – using high temperature salts Sodium/Magnesium solution as
electrolyte operating at 6500C, exhaust however also includes CO2
 Phosphoric Acid- using Phosphoric Acid as electrolyte operating at 150 to 2000C
 Proton exchange Membrane- a polymer electrolyte in the form of a thin,
permeable sheet is utilized operating at 80 to 1750 C, utilized in most FCEV, will
not spill, or crack
 Solid Oxide - use a hard, ceramic compound of metal (like calcium or zirconium)
oxides and Oxygen O2 as electrolyte, they operate at high temperatures of about
10000C
HYDROGEN(Hydrogen Fuel Cells Vehicles)

Chevy Volt Honda FCX Clarity


HYDROGEN(Hydrogen Fuel Cells Vehicles)

Toyota’s Fuel Cell vehicle


HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

 Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) synergises the strength of gasoline engines and
electric motors to improve fuel economy and lower emissions, gas engine
dominant.
 Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) use the electric motor as the primary
source and thus batteries can be charged on grid and gas/diesel engine used
to extend the driving range and or provide extra power
 Main components are a gas engine, electric motor, battery, power splitting
device
 A smaller more efficient gasoline engine is used
 The electric motor provides extra power, starts the engine instantly, and
charges the battery during braking and while coasting
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
 Advantages
 Reduced GHG emissions from increased efficiency
 Extended range per fill-up
 PHEV can use most of its energy from the grid or AE source
 Tax exemptions and benefits in certain places
 High resale value

 Disadvantages
 More expensive than other electric vehicles
 Long charging times
 Higher maintenance cost (double parts)
 High voltage stored in batteries posses a hazard in an accident
 Poorer handling due to light material construction
energy storage systems
 Energy storage systems for transport fall in 2 categories batteries and chemical fuel
 Lithium-Ion Batteries
 Lithium-ion batteries are currently the choice of batteries for Evs and are used in
most portable consumer electronics such as cell phones and laptops because of their
high energy per unit mass relative to other electrical energy storage systems. They
also have a high power-to-weight ratio, high energy efficiency, good high-
temperature performance, and low self-discharge. Most components of lithium-ion
batteries can be recycled.
 Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries
 Nickel-metal hydride batteries, used routinely in computer and medical equipment,
offer reasonable specific energy and specific power capabilities. Nickel-metal
hydride batteries have a much longer life cycle than lead-acid batteries and are safe
and abuse tolerant. These batteries have been used successfully in EVs and are
widely used in HEVs. The main challenges with nickel-metal hydride batteries are
their high cost, high self-discharge and heat generation at high temperatures, and
the need to control hydrogen loss.
energy storage systems
 Lead-Acid Batteries
 Lead-acid batteries can be designed to be high power and are inexpensive, safe, and
reliable. However, low specific energy, poor cold-temperature performance, and short
calendar and cycle life impede their use. Advanced high-power lead-acid batteries are
being developed, but these batteries are only used in commercially-available electric
drive vehicles for ancillary loads.
 Ultracapacitors
 Ultracapacitors store energy in a polarized liquid between an electrode and an
electrolyte. Energy storage capacity increases as the liquid's surface area increases.
Ultracapacitors can provide vehicles additional power during acceleration and hill
climbing and help recover braking energy. They may also be useful as secondary energy-
storage devices in electric drive vehicles because they help electrochemical batteries
level load power.
 Hydrogen stored as fuel for a fuel cell can also be considered as a form of storage as
energy is used generate the hydrogen through several methods. Using off peak baseload
to generate hydrogen should be done as a conservation/efficiency method
energy storage systems

 The current reality of batteries and the 10 year plan


Clean Transport Potential in Jamaica

 The national energy policy states:


“It will advance new, environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies,
particularly in the transport sector, and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy production,
conversion and use”

 Transportation –The transport sector strategy will discourage the importation of inefficient
motor vehicles by linking the tax regime to mileage per gallon and the engine capacity. The
transportation policy will encourage measures such as energy conservation, including:
efficient traffic management; car pooling; park and ride; use of clean fuels to minimize
pollution; flexi-work hours and tele-commuting; an efficient public/urban mass transit
transport system; encouraging non-motorized transport; and, promoting vehicle and road
maintenance programs. Supporting legislation and infrastructure for use of biofuels will be
put in place. The transportation policy also will encourage more efficient modes of transport
such as barges especially for bulky materials like aggregates. The possibility of enhanced
coastal and rail transport will be kept under constant review. Once natural gas is introduced
into Jamaica’s energy supply mix, the transport fleets, where applicable, will be converted to
CNG and in the longer term a CNG supply network must be developed to enable private
motorists to convert to natural gas based motor vehicles.
Clean Transport Potential in Jamaica

 Jamaica will be consuming far less energy to operate the transport sector,
which uses 21 per cent of the total oil imported.
 There were about 500,000 registered motor vehicles in Jamaica in 2008,
according to the Insurance Association of Jamaica (there are more now). If 10
per cent of this amount, which is 50,000, were EVs, the country would save
approximately $5.9 billion per annum on imported oil, which is calculated as
follows:
 On average Jamaica spends US$2.4 billion for oil annually, multiplied that by
the 21 per cent that the transportation sector uses, equals to US$504 million,
then multiplied by the 10 per cent (not using oil/gas) would equal
US$50,400,000 or $5,997,600,000. This $5.9 billion worth of savings is at no
cost to the GOJ or the people, and will increase by two per cent each year
according to the recommendation above.
Clean Transport Potential in Jamaica
 The energy policy only vaguely mentions
“environmentally friendly technologies”
with no specific reference to EVs.
 While there are minor reductions in import
duties on EV’s, we are a long way behind
other countries who offer more incentives.
As oil and exchange saving would
significant out weigh duties avoided
 Also there is little in terms of
infrastructure to support EV’s including
charging stations, and testing procedures
and equipment at Vehicle Examination
Depot
 Steps taken to reduce CO2 emissions
include adding 10% ethanol to gasoline
mixtures, larger more efficient public
passenger transport system, city bus lanes
Clean Transport Potential in Jamaica

 Despite policy and infrastructure


several pre-owned hybrid vehicles
have entered the country. Models
include the Toyota Prius, Honda
Insight, and Hybrid Camry.
 There is currently one known BEV in
Jamaica a 2011 Nissan Leaf own by
Mr. Stephen Hodges.
Heavy duty vehicle Advances
The options highlighted in the plot below will be aimed at increasing
the efficiency of heavy duty vehicles

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NER9X4_gtYk
Conclusion

 EV’s have been around for a while and have made several rises and falls
 Climate change and high fuel prices have triggered the latest resurgent
 EV’s have very low GHG emission rates
 EV’s have come a long way but are limited by storage and current cost
 Technology is progressing and making advances in developing a better EV with
longer ranges and better storage(most people drive daily well within the
current range of EV’s)
 EV’s are here in Jamaica, and more are coming
 Jamaica has limited policies and infrastructure in place for capitalizing on
EV’s
References
 http://earthzine.org/2014/07/08/vermont-law-school-the-ethical-dimensions-of-energy-policy/
 http://americanhistory.si.edu/fuelcells/basics.htm
 http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/09/f26/QTR2015-08-Transportation.pdf
 http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/hybridtech.shtml
 http://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/urban/studies/doc/2011-11-clean-transport-systems.pdf
 http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/electricity_basics.html
 http://www.goelectricdrive.org/electric-cars/plug-in-electric-vehicles
 http://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/electric-vehicles/how-do-battery-electric-cars-work#.VlU-
53arSM8
 http://energystorage.org/energy-storage/technologies/electrochemical-capacitors
 http://www.toyota-global.com/innovation/environmental_technology/fuelcell_vehicle/
 http://www.afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/electric_batteries.html
 http://www.jacustoms.gov.jm/docs/REVISED%20RATE%20SHEET%20%20-%20INDIVIDUALS-
MAY%202014-2.pdf
 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/Time-for-electric-vehicles-in-Ja_19239404
 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/columns/Time-for-electric-vehicles-in-Ja_19239404