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What is Security?
“the quality or state of being secure – to be free from danger”
Layers of Security
 Physical security – to protect physical items, objects, or
areas from unauthorized access and misuse

 Personnel security – to protect the individual or group of

individuals who are authorized to access the organization
and its operations

 Operations security – to protect the details of a particular

operation or series of activities
Layers of Security (cont.)
 Communications security – to protect communications
media, technology, and content

 Network security – to protect networking components,

connections, and content

 Information security – to protect the confidentiality, integrity,

and availability of information assets, whether in storage,
processing, or transmission. It is achieved via the application
of policy, education, training and awareness, and technology.
Key Information Security
 Access
 Asset
 Attack
 Control, safeguard, or countermeasure
 Exploit
 Exposure
 Loss
 Protection Profile, or security posture
 Risk
 Subjects and objects
 Threat
 Threat agent
 Vulnerability
 Access

A subject or object’s ability to use, manipulate, modify, or affect

another subject or object.

Authorized users have legal access to a system, whereas

hackers have illegal access to a system.

Access control regulate this ability.

 Asset

The organizational resource that is being protected.

An asset can be logical such as a Web site, information, or

data; or an asset can be physical, such as a person, computer
system, or other tangible object.

Information assets are the focus of security efforts.

 Attack

An intentional or unintentional act that can cause damage to or

otherwise compromise information and/or the systems that
support it.

Attacks can be active or passive, intentional or unintentional,

and direct or indirect.
 Control, safeguard, or countermeasure

Security mechanisms, policies, or procedures that can

successfully counter attacks, reduce risk, resolve
vulnerabilities, and otherwise improve the security within an
 Exploit

A technique used to compromise a system.

 Exposure

A condition or state of being exposed. In information security,

exposure exists when a vulnerability known to an attacker is
 Loss

A single instance of an information asset suffering damage or

unintended or unauthorized modification or disclosure.
 Protection profile or security posture

The entire set of controls and safeguards, including policy,

education, training, and awareness, and technology, that the
organization implements (or fails to implement) to protect the
 Risk

The probability that something unwanted will happen.

 Subjects and objects

A computer can be either the subject of an attack - an agent

entity used to conduct the attack – or the object of an attack –
the target entity.
 Threat

A category of objects, persons, or other entities that presents a

danger to an asset
 Threat agent

The specific instance or a component of a threat.

 Vulnerability

A weakness or fault in a system or protection mechanism that

opens to attack or damage.
Critical Characteristics of
 Availability – enables authorized users – persons or computer
systems – to access information without interference or
obstruction and to receive it in the required format
 Accuracy – information is free from mistakes or errors and it has
the value that the end user expects
 Authenticity – the quality or state of being genuine or original,
rather than a reproduction or fabrication (…)
 Confidentiality - information is protected from disclosure or
exposure to unauthorized individuals or systems (…)
 Integrity – information is whole, complete, and uncorrupted
 Utility – the quality or state of having value for some purpose or
 Possession – the quality or state of ownership or control
 Authenticity (cont.)

Email spoofing – the act of sending an email message with a

modified field (often the address of the originator)

Phishing – when an attacker attempts to obtain personal or

financial information using fraudulent means, most often by
posing as another individual or organization

 Confidentiality (cont.)
Ensures that only those people with rights and privileges to
access information are able to do so.

To protect confidentiality of information, the following measures

may be used:
1. Information classification
2. Secure document storage
3. Application of general security policies
4. Education of information custodian and end users

Components of Information
 Software – operating systems, and assorted command utilities
 Hardware – the physical technology that houses and executes
the software, stores and transports the data, and provides
interfaces for the entry and removal of information from the
 Data – stored, processed, and transmitted by a computer
system that must be protected
 People
 Procedures – are written instructions for accomplishing a
specific task
 Networks
Balancing Information Security
and Access
 Information security cannot be absolute; it is a process, not a
 To achieve balance – to operate an information system that
satisfies the user and the security professional – the security
level must allow reasonable access, yet protect against
The Security Systems
Development Life Cycle
 Investigation
 Analysis
 Logical Design
 Physical Design
 Implementation
 Maintenance and Change
Security Professionals and the
 Security Project Team
1. Champion – senior executive who promotes the project and
ensures its support, both financially and administratively, at
the highest levels of the organization
2. Team Leader – a project manager, who may be departmental
line manager or staff unit manager, who understands project
management, personnel management, and information
security technical requirements
3. Security Policy Developers – people who understand the
organizational culture, existing policies, and requirements for
developing and implementing successful policies.
Security Professionals and the
Organization (cont.)
Security Project Team (cont.)

4. Risk assessment specialists – people who understand

financial risk assessment techniques, the value of
organization assets, and the security methods to be used
5. Security professionals – dedicated, trained, and well-
educated specialists in all aspects of information security
from both a technical and nontechnical standpoint
6. System administrators – people with the primary
responsibility for administering the systems that house the
information used by the organization
7. End users – those whom the new system will most directly
Important Functions That
Information Security Performs
1. Protecting the organization’s ability to function
2. Enabling the safe operation of applications running on the
organization’s IT systems
3. Protecting the data the organization collects and uses
4. Safeguarding the organization’s technology assets
Categories of Threats
1. Compromises to intellectual Property
2. Software Attacks
3. Deviations in Quality of Service
4. Espionage or trespass
5. Forces of Nature
6. Human error or failure
7. Information extortion
8. Missing, inadequate, or incomplete Organization Policy or Planning
9. Missing, inadequate, or incomplete controls
10. Sabotage or vandalism
11. Theft
12. Technical hardware failures or errors
13. Technical software failures or errors
14. Technological obsolescence
 Virus – consist of segments of code that performs malicious actions
 Worms – a malicious program that replicates itself constantly, without
requiring another program environment
 Trojan Horses – are software programs that hide their true nature and
reveal their designed behavior only when activated
 Backdoor or Trap Door – a virus or worm can have a payload that
installs a back door or trap door component in a system, which allows
attacker to access the system at will with special privileges
 Polymorphic Threats – one that over time changes the way it appears to
anti-virus software programs, making it undetectable by techniques that
look for preconfigured signatures.
 Virus and Worm Hoaxes
Deviations in Quality of Service
 Internet Service Issues
 Communications and Other Service Provider Issues
 Power Irregularities
Espionage or Trespass
 When an unauthorized individual gains access to the
information an organization is trying to protect
 Industrial espionage – when information gatherers employ
techniques that cross the threshold of what is legal or
 Shoulder surfing – is used in public or semi-public settings
when individuals gather information they are not authorized
to have by looking over another individual’s shoulder or
viewing the information from a distance
Espionage or Trespass (cont.)
 Trespass – unauthorized real or virtual actions that enable
gatherers to enter premises or systems they have not been
authorized to enter
 Hackers – are people who create and user computer
software to gain access to information illegally
 Phreaker – hacks the public telephone network to make free
calls or disrupt services
Forces of Nature
 Fire
 Flood
 Earthquake
 Lightning
 Landslide or mudslide
 Tornado/severe windstorm
 Hurricane or typhoon
 Tsunami
 Electrostatic discharge (ESD)
 Dust contamination
Human Error or Failure
 Includes acts performed without intent or malicious purpose
by an authorized user.
 Causes may be due to inexperience, improper training, and
incorrect assumptions
Information Extortion
 Occurs when an attacker or trusted insider steals information
from a computer system and demands compensation for its
return or for an agreement not to disclose
Missing, inadequate, or incomplete
Organization Policy or Planning
 Makes an organization vulnerable to loss, damage or
disclosure of information assets when other threats lead to
 Information security, at its core, is a management function.
 The organization’s executive leadership is responsible for
strategic planning for security as well as for IT and business
functions – a task known as governance.
Missing, Inadequate, or
Incomplete Controls
 Means security safeguards and information asset protection
controls are missing, misconfigured, antiquated, or poorly
designed or managed
Sabotage or Vandalism
 Involves deliberate sabotage of a computer or business, or
acts of vandalism to either destroy an asset or damage the
image of an organization
 The illegal taking of another’s property, which can be
physical, electronic, or intellectual
Technical Hardware Failures or
 Occur when a manufacturer distributes equipment containing
a known or unknown flaw
 Defects can cause the system to perform outside of expected
parameters, resulting in unrecoverable loss of the equipment
Technical Software Failures or
 Range from bugs to untested failure conditions
 Sometimes the bugs are not errors but purposeful shortcuts
left by programmers for benign or malign reasons
Technological Obsolescence
 Antiquated or outdated infrastructure can lead to unrealiable
and untrustworthy systems
 An attack is an act that takes advantage of a vulnerability to
compromise a controlled system.
 Is accomplished by a threat agent that damages or steals an
organization’s information or physical asset
 A vulnerability is an identified weakness in a controlled
system, where controls are not present or are no longer
Types of Major Attacks
1. Malicious Code
2. Hoaxes
3. Back Doors
4. Password Crack
5. Brute Force
6. Dictionary
7. Denial-of-Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS)
8. Spoofing
9. Man-in-the Middle
10. Spam
11. Mail Bombing
12. Sniffers
13. Social Engineering
14. Phishing
15. Pharming
16. Timing Attack