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# CIT - UNIVERSITY

SIMPLE STRAIN
D

F F

Strain, 
- is the amount by which a dimension of a body
changes when the body is subjected to a load divided
by the original value of the dimension.
 ,mm/mm or in/in or

L unitless

CIT - UNIVERSITY

## from Hooke’s Law,

-within the proportional limit, the stress is directly
proportional to strain
S∞
or S = E 

where:
E – Young’s Modulus
or Modulus of Elasticity

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CIT - UNIVERSITY

STRESS-STRAIN CURVE

CIT - UNIVERSITY

but,
F
S
A
and,


L
subs,
F 
E
A L

FL
 
AE

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CIT - UNIVERSITY

Shear Deformation

let,
s = shearing deformation
s = shearing strain
s
s 
L

CIT - UNIVERSITY

## applying Hooke’s Law to shear,

S s ∞ s
or
S s = G s
where:
G = modulus of rigidity
but, F
Ss 
A
subs, F s
G
A L
FL
s 
AG
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CIT - UNIVERSITY

Poisson’s Ratio
-is the ratio of lateral unit deformation to axial unit
deformation
let,
 = poisson’s ratio also ,
lateral strain
 
E
1
longitudin al strain 2G
y
 or,
x
or E
G
z 2(1  )

x
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CIT - UNIVERSITY

Thermal Stress
L

Lf t
tf

let,
t = thermal elongation
t ∞ L (Δt) where:
or, α = coefficient of thermal expansion
t = α L (Δt) tf = final temperature
t = initial temperature
Lf = final length
L = initial length
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CIT - UNIVERSITY

also,
 = strain or,
 ∞ Δt
 = α Δt t
Sth  E
and , Lo
t
 L ( t f  t )
L 
L
From Hooke’s Law, Sth  E( t f  t )
S∞

or S=E

subs,
Sth = E α Δt

CIT - UNIVERSITY

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CIT - UNIVERSITY

Example 1:
A steel rod 30 mm in diameter and 80 mm long has an allowance
elongation not to exceed 1.5 mm, find the allowable load in KN.
Use E = 200 x 106 KPa.
from, or,
L = 800 mm
FL 
D = 30 mm   ( D2 )E
AE F 4
 = 1.5 mm
AE L
F subs,
L  2 N 2 10
0.002 L( )(0.006) m (9 x10 2
)
F 4 m
L
F  5089.38 N
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CIT - UNIVERSITY

Example 2:
A steel rod 10 m long, hanging vertically supports a tensile load of
2000 KN. Neglecting the weight of the rod, determine the required
diameter if the stress is not to exceed 600 MPa and the total
elongation is not to exceed 5 mm. Use E = 200 GPa.
from, but, therefore,
F F

FL St  
A  d2
AE use,
4
L = 10 m 2000 KN (10m) d = 65.15 mm
D=? 0.005 m 
 2 N d
4F
d (200 x109 2 ) St
4 m
d  5.046 x10 3 m 4(2000 KN )
d
KN
or  (600 x103 2 )
m
d  5.05 mm
F = 2000 KN d  0.06515 m
or d  65.15 mm

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CIT - UNIVERSITY

Example 3:
A steel rod, 15 mm in diameter, is to be attached between two fixed points
1.25 m apart. If the rod is too short by 0.25 mm, find the stress
applied to put the rod back to fitness. Use E = 200,000 GPa.
from, subs,
1.25 m
FL N
L=?   (0.00025m)( 200 x10 9
2
AE St  m
L 1.24975m
 S St  40,008,001.6 Pa
0.25 mm E
E or
L = 1.25 – 0.00025 St 
= 1.24975 m L St  40 MPa

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CIT - UNIVERSITY

Example 4:
A rail having a coefficient of linear expansion of 11.6 x 10-6 m/m C
increases its length when heated from 25 C to 50 C. Determine
the strain.
from, subs,
t
 6 m
L   11.6x10 (50  25)C
mC
but,
4 m
 t  L( t f  t )   2.9x10
m
then,
L ( t t  t )
t = 25 C tf = 50 C 
α = 11.6 x 10-6 m/m C
L
  ( t f  t )
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CIT - UNIVERSITY

Example 5:
What temperature will the rails just touch each other, if steel railroad
is 10 m long are laid with clearance of 3 mm at an initial temperature
of 21 C? Use = 11.7 x 10 -6 m/m C.
but,
c
t = α L (tf – t)
/2
0.003 m = (1.7 x 10-6 m/mC)(10m)(tf-2) C
C = /2 + /2
tf = 46.64 C
C=
C = 3 mm

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CIT - UNIVERSITY

Example 6:
A tensile stress of 100 MPa exists on a 2 cm diameter steel rod that is
fastened securely between two rigid walls. If the temperature is
increased by 30 C, what is the final stress in the rod?
then,
L subs,  net     t
 100 MPa
  4.7619 x 104 L  3.51 x 104 L
L 210 x 103 MPa
Lf  net  1.2519 x 104 L
 4.7619 x 10  4 let,
4 Sf  final stress
from, SE   4.7619 x 10 L
Sf  E net
also,
  t  Lt  net
St  E E
L
L
 11.7 x 10 6 L(30) 1.2519 x 10  4 L
 St  (210x106 KPa)
  t  3.51 x 10 4 L
L
L E Sf  26,289.9 KPa
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CIT - UNIVERSITY

Example 7:
The modulus of elasticity 15,000,000 psi and 6,000,000 psi in shear
for a given material. Determine its poisson’s ratio.
from,

E
 1
2G
15,000,000
 1
2(6,000,000)
  0.25

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CIT - UNIVERSITY

Example 8:
A steel shaft having a diameter of 5 cm is subjected to an axial tensile
force of 1000 KN. Determine the diameter after the force is applied.
Use a poisson’s ratio,  = 0.28 and E = 210 x 106 KPa.
but, subs,
L L
D L  F
L L 
Lf L and, AE
Df F 100 KN
d L 
FL 
from,  KN
lateral strain AE (0.05 m) 2 (210 x 10 6 2 )
 4 m
L F
longitudin al strain   L  2.4252 x 10 3 m
L L AE
 L
d
D
D

L
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CIT - UNIVERSITY

Example 8, con’t:
then, but,
 D  L D D  Df
D  
 0.28(2.4252 x 10 3 ) D D
 D  6.7906 x 10  4 m D f  D   D .D
D f  0.05  6.7906 x10  4 (0.05)
D f  0.049966 m
or
D f  4.9966 cm

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CIT - UNIVERSITY
QUIZ:
1. A steel hollow tube is use to carry a tensile load of 50 KN at a stress of 10 MPa. If outside diameter is 10 times the tube thickness, find the thickness of the
tube.
a. 13.3 mm b. 14.4 mm c. 10.2 mm d. 12.1 mm
2. A U-bolt supports a load of 5,000 lb. The cross-section of the bolt has a diameter of ½ in. How much stress is induced in the sides of the bolt?
a. 12.7 ksi b. 6.4 ksi c. 8.35 ksi d. 10.6 ksi
3. A short hollow steel cylinder with a wall thickness of 38 mm is to carry a compression load, applied uniformly on the end of 7,800 KN. If the yield stress of
steel in compression is 360 MPa and the outside diameter is 400 mm, what is the factor of safety?
a. 1.5 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4
4. If the weight of 6 in diameter by 24 in long SAE 1030 shafting is 2000 kg, then what bearing stress it produced?
a. 28.6 ksi b. 30.6 ksi c. 31.8 ksi d. 32.4 ksi
5. Determine the maximum thickness of metal plate in which a 7.5 centimeter diameter hole can be punched, if the plate has an ultimate shearing strength of
20 MPa and the punch can exert a maximum force of 2 metric tons.
a. 2.42 mm b. 3.65 mm c. 4.16 mm d. 5.24 mm
6. What force is necessary to punch a 1 in hole in a 1/4 in steel plate if the ultimate shearing stress is 60,000 psi and the ultimate compressive stress is
100,000 psi?
a. 40.8 ksi b. 46.34 ksi c. 47.12 ksi d. 49.4 ksi
7. A hollow rivet has an outside diameter of 5 mm and an inside diameter of 3 mm. If the allowable shearing stress is 400 x 106 N/m2, what maximum
shearing force can the rivet sustain if subjected to shear?
a. 5,018 N b. 5,026 N c. 5,037 N d. 5,058 N
8. The diameter of a brass rod is 6 mm. What force will stretch it by 0.2% of its length? The modulus of elasticity of brass is 9 x 1010 Pa.
a. 5089.38 N b. 5313.75 N c. 5609.21 N d. 5890.46 N
9. An iron rod 5 m long and 0.5 cm2 in cross section stretches 1 mm when a mass of 225 kg hangs on it. Compute the modulus of elasticity of the iron.
a. 180.4 GPa b. 208.4 GPa c. 220.7 GPa d. 237.8 GPa
10. A steel bar initially free of stress is held between rigid supports. Determine the stress in the bar if temperature increases by 100 F. Use α = 6.5 x 10-6
in/in F and E = 30 x 106 psi.
a. 18,800 psi b. 19,500 psi c. 20,700 psi d. 22,100 psi
11. A steel bridge span is 100 m long. What is the difference in length in cm if There is an increase in temperature of 50 C, α = 11.7 x 10-6 m/m C.
a. 5.85 cm b. 6.56 cm c. 8.12 cm d. 9.08 cm
12. The poisson's ratio for a given material is 0.25, if the modulus of elasticity is 100 GN/m2, find it's modulus of elasticity in shear.
a. 25 GPa b. 30 GPa c. 35 GPa d. 40 GPa

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CIT - UNIVERSITY
QUIZ:
1. A steel rod 30 mm in diameter and 80 mm long has an allowance elongation not to exceed 1.5 mm, find the
allowable load in KN. Use E = 200 x 106 Kpa.
2. A steel rod 10 m long, hanging vertically supports a tensile load of 2000 KN. Neglecting the weight of the rod,
determine the required diameter if the stress is not to exceed 600 MPa and the total elongation is not to exceed 5
mm. Use E = 200 GPa.
3. A steel rod, 15 mm in diameter, is to be attached between two fixed points 1.25 m apart. If the rod is too short by
0.25 mm, find the stress applied to put the rod back to fitness. Use E = 200,000 Gpa
4. A rail having a coefficient of linear expansion of 11.6 x 10-6 m/m C increases its length when heated from 25 C to
50 C. Determine the strain.
5. What temperature will the rails just touch each othr, if steel railroad is 10 m long are laid with clearance of 3 mm at
an initial temperature of 21 C? Use = 11.7 x 10 -6 m/m C
6. The modulus of elasticity is 15,000,000 psi in shear foir a given material. Determine its poisson’s ratio.
7. A 5 KN force acting at the end of a 3 m cantilever beam. If section modulus of the beam is 200 cm 3, what is the
stress induced?
8. A simply supported beam is 50 mm by 200 mm in cross-section and 4 m long. If the fiber stress is not to exceed
25 MPa and the beam weight is neglected, find the maximum mid-span concentrated load that the beam can
support if the 200 mm dimension is vertically oriented.
9. Compute for the polar section modulus of a SAE 1010 shafting having a diameter of 3 in. Use a factor of safety of
2 and design stress of 1000 psi.
10. Determine the maximum shearing stress in MPa that exists in a 5 cm diameter shaft subjected to 250 N.m torque.

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