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Programmable logic controller

OLEH : HENDRIANTO HUSADA

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TOPIK KULIAH
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 PENDAHULUAN
 ARSITEKTUR & KOMPONEN-KOMPONEN PLC
 INPUT/OUTPUT PLC
 DASAR-DASAR PEMROGRAMAN PLC
 KOMPONEN-KOMPONEN PEMROGRAMAN PLC
 BAHASA PEMROGRAMAN PLC
 LADDER DIAGRAM
 REALISASI RANGKAIAN LOGIKA KE LADDER
DIAGRAM
 INSTRUKSI PLC ,TIMER,COUNTER & INSTRUKSI
LAINNYA
 APLIKASI PLC 11/20/2018
SISTEM PENILAIAN
3

 UTS 30%
 UAS 40%
 TUGAS 20%
 ABSEN 10%
 ------------------------
 100%

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
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 SETIAWAN, IWAN:PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER DAN TEKNIK


PERANCANGAN SISTEM KONTROL , PENERBIT ANDI OFFSET 2006
 PETRUZELLA : PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER
 WEBB , JOHN W & REIS , RONALD A: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC
CONTROLLERS:Principles and Applications, fourth Edition, Prentice Hall
1999
 DUNNING, GARY:INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC
CONTROLLERS ,Delmar Publisher ,1998

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PENDAHULUAN
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 KOMPUTER
 JARINGAN
 INTERNET

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KOMPUTER
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 PERSONAL COMPUTER
 PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER
 MICROCONTROLLER

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KOMPUTER
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 HARDWARE
 SOFTWARE
 FIRMWARE

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SOFTWARE
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HUBUNGAN ANTARA HARDWARE
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DENGAN SOFTWARE

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MICROCONTROLLER
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PLC
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pendahuluan
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 DEFINISI PLC
 SEJARAH PLC
 KEUNTUNGAN & KERUGIAN PLC
 JENIS-JENIS PLC
 MEREK PLC
 APLIKASI PLC

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DEFINISI PLC
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 SUATU PIRANTI ELEKTRONIK DIGITAL YANG


MENGGUNAKAN MEMORI INTERNAL YANG
DAPAT DIPROGRAM UNTUK MEDIA
PENYIMPANAN INSTRUKSI-INSTRUKSI DALAM
IMPLEMENTASI FUNGSI-FUNGSI KHUSUS
SEPERTI LOGIKA, SEQUENCING , TIMING,
COUNTING DAN ARITMATIKA UNTUK
MENGONTROL MELALUI MODUL-MODUL
ANALOG ATAU DIGITAL , BERBAGAI TIPE MESIN-
MESIN ATAU PROSES.

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DEFINISI PLC
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 SUATU KOMPUTER UNTUK INDUSTRI/ KHUSUS


YANG DIGUNAKAN UNTUK PENGONTROLAN
SISTEM INDUSTRI
 SUATU KOMPUTER UNTUK INDUSTRI DIMANA
PIRANTI KONTROL SEPERTI LIMIT SWITCHES, PUSH
BUTTON, SENSOR PROXIMITY ATAU PHOTO
ELECTRIC,FLOAT SWITCHES ATAU PRESSURE
SWITCH DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI PENDETEKSI
SINYAL KONTROL MASUK KE UNIT

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MENGAPA MENGGUNAKAN PLC ?
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0

 MENDAPATKAN PENGONTROLAN SECARA


KOMPLIT SUATU PROSES MANUFAKTUR
 MENCAPAI KONSISTENSI DALAM MANUFAKTUR
 MEMPERBAIKI KUALITAS DAN AKURASI
 BEKERJA PADA LINGKUNGAN YANG SUSAH
 MENAIKKAN PRODUKTIVITAS
 MEMPERSINGKAT WAKTU MEMASARKAN
 KONTROL INVENTORY
 BERUBAH SECARA CEPAT
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PENGENALAN
PLC
 PROGRAMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

 Sebuah alat yang digunakan untuk menggantikan


rangkaian sederetan relai yang dijumpai pada sistem
kontrol proses konvensional

 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) merupakan perangkat


special-purpose dengan keandalan tinggi. PLC berupa
komputer mikro yang digunakan untuk memenuhi tugas
pengendalian secara logika, berdasarkan program yang
telah ditentukan.
SEJARAH PLC
 Diperkenalkan pada tahun 1960-an yang bertujuan untuk
menghilangkan beban ongkos perawatan berbasis relai
 PLC pertama didunia MODICON ( modular digital controller )
084
 Pertengahan tahun 1970-an PLC berbasis prosesor AMD 2901
 1980-an memperkecil ukuran PLC dan pembuatan perangkat
lunak melalui program simbolik dengan PC dan penggunaan
handled programer.
 Tahun 1990-an telah dilakukan reduksi protokol baru dan
modernisasi lapisan fisik dan peningkatan standar serta
penggabungan bahasa pemrograman dibawah SI
SEJARAH PLC
1968 Programmable concept developed
1969 Hardware CPU controller, with logic
instructions, 1 K of memory and 128 I/O
points
1974 Use of several (multi) processors within a
PLC - timers and counters; arithmetic
operations; 12 K of memory
and 1024 I/O points
1976 Remote input/output systems introduced
1977 Microprocessors - based PLC introduced

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SEJARAH PLC
1980 Intelligent I/O modules developed
Enhanced communications facilities
Enhanced software features
(e.g. documentation)
Use of personal microcomputers as
programming aids
1983 Low - cost small PLC’s introduced
1985 on Networking of all levels of PLC, computer
and machine using SCADA
software.

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Blok diagram plc
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PLC VS KONVESIONAL

 PLC BERFUNGSI MEMPERCEPAT PROSES YANG SELAMA INI


MASIH KONVENSIONAL MENJADI OTOMATIS

 PENGGUNAAN PLC BERTUJUAN UNTUK MEMPERMUDAH


PROSES-PROSES YANG SANGAT KOMPLEKS DAN SULIT
YANG HARUS DITANGANI DENGAN CEPAT, PLC JUGA
SEKALIGUS DAPAT MENGGANTIKAN BEBERAPA ALAT
YANG DIPERLUKAN.
Fungsi plc
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Karakteristik PLC:
 Ukuran kecil
 Pemrograman yang ampuh
 Duplikasi mudah dan murah
 Diagnosis terintegrasi &
terpusat
 Dokumentasi text dan grafik
 Harga murah
Karakteristik
 Aplikasi universal PLC:
KEUNTUNGAN PLC
3
0

• Sedikit perkabelan ( wiring)


• Wiring antara piranti(devices) dan relay
contacts dilakukan pada program
• Mudah dan cepat untuk melakukan
pengubahan .
• Petunjuk troubleshooting membuat
pemrograman lebih mudah dan mengurangi
downtime.
• komponen-komponennya reliabel bisa
berfungsi selama beberapa tahun sebelum
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KEUNTUNGAN PLC
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 FLEKSIBILITAS: SATU PLC BISA MENGONTROL


BANYAK MESIN

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ADVANTAGES OF USING PLC:

 Shorter project implementation time.

 Easier modification

 Project cost can be accurately calculated.

 Shorter training time required.

 Design easily changed using software ( changes and addition to specifications can be processed by
software.

 A wide range of control application

 Easy maintenance.

 High Reliability

 Standardization of Controller hardware.

 Able to withstand Harsh plant/process environments (Operate normally under severe


conditions of temperature, humidity, voltage fluctuations and noises).
2.1.3 PLC functions

CONTROL TYPE: FUNCTIONS

i. Conventional Relay Control Logic


Sequence Control replacer
ii. Timers/ Counter
iii. PCB Card controller replacer
iv. Auto/Semi-auto/Manual control of
machine and process.

i. Arithmetic operation (+, -, × , ÷)


Advanced/ ii. Information Handling
Sophisticated Control iii. Analog Control (Temperature, Pressure )
iv. P.I.D (Proportional Integral Derivation)
v. Servo Motor Control
vi. Stepper Motor control
PLC functions:

CONTROL TYPE: FUNCTIONS

i. Process monitoring and alarm.


Supervisory Control ii. Fault Diagnostic and monitoring
iii. Interfacing with Computer (RS-232C/RS
422)
iv. Printer/ ASCII Interfacing
v. Factory Automation Networking
vi. Local Area Network (LAN)
vii. Wide Area Network (WAN)
viii. Factory Automation (F.A), Flexible
Manufacturing System (F.M.S) &
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
(C.I.M).
Kriteria Pemilihan PLC
1. Hardware
a. Jumlah input dan output
b. Tegangan operasi input dan
output
c. Proteksi terhadap short
j. Pemrosesan alarm
circuit
k. Interface
d. Indikasi status input dan
l. Ukuran dimensi
output
m. Kondisi sekitar
e. Jumlah counter/timer
n. Unit: compact/modular
f. Jumllah flag
g. Jenis dan ukuran memori
h. Maipulasi bit/word
i. Waktu sikulus bite/1 kb
Kriteria Pemilihan PLC
2. Software
a. Kapasitas programer
b. Kenyamanan programer
c. Bahasa pemrograman
d. Test dan comissioning
e. Kualitas dokummentasi
program
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Areas of Application
 Manufacturing / Machining

 Food / Beverage

 Metals

 Power

 Mining

 Petrochemical / Chemical

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Aplikasi…

PLC banyak digunakan pada aplikasi-aplikasi


industri misalnya : pada proses pengepakan,
penanganan bahan, perakitan otomatis dan lain
sebagainya.
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MEREK-MEREK PLC
AMERICAN 1. Allen Bradley
2. Gould Modicon
3. Texas Instruments
4. General Electric
5. Westinghouse
6. Cutter Hammer
7. Square D

EUROPEAN 1. Siemens
2. Klockner & Mouller
3. Festo
4. Telemechanique

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MEREK-MEREK PLC
JAPANESE 1. Toshiba
2. Omron
3. Fanuc
4. Mitsubishi

KOREA 1. LG
2. SAMSUNG

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PLC Size
1. SMALL - it covers units with up to 128 I/O’s and
memories up to 2 Kbytes.
- these PLC’s are capable of providing
simple to advance levels or
machine controls.
2. MEDIUM - have up to 2048 I/O’s and memories up
to 32 Kbytes.
3. LARGE - the most sophisticated units of the PLC
family. They have up to 8192 I/O’s
and memories up to 750
Kbytes.
- can control individual production
processes or entire plant.
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Jenis kontruksi PLC:

i. Compact PLC
ii. Modular PLC
iii. PLC Plug-in Card

Manufacturer: OMRON, Allen Bradley,


Mitsubishi, NAIS, Siemens,
Toshiba, Festo etc.
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Jenis kontruksi plc:

i. Compact PLC:

Compact PLC – MELSEC FX


Figure 1: Compact PLC
i. Modular PLC

Figure 2: Modular PLC


iii. PLC Plug-in Card

Figure 3: Plug-in Card PLC


Aplikasi PLC sangat
luas dari industri
otomotif, makanan,
pengemasan dan lain
sebagainya.
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KOMPONEN-KOMPONEN PLC
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 HARDWARE: ARSITEKUR PLC & BAGIAN-BAGIAN


PLC
 SOFTWARE

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Hardware
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 Prosessor atau Central Processing Unit (CPU)


 Power Supply (Catu Daya)
 Piranti Pemrograman
 Unit Memori
 Bagian Input dan Output
 Perantara Komunikasi
 Display dan Unit penunjuk
 Unit Housing

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HARDWARE
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SOFTWARE
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ARSITEKTUR PLC & BAGIAN-
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BAGIAN PLC
 ARSITEKTUR PLC POWER
SUPPLY

I M O M
N O U O
P D T D
PROCESSOR
U U P U
From T L U L
SENSORS E T E To
Pushbuttons, OUTPUT
contacts, Solenoids,
limit switches, contactors,
etc. alarms
etc.
PROGRAMMING
DEVICE

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Arsitektur plc
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Blok diagram plc
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3.1 Processor Architecture for PLC:

Data BUS

ROM RAM Output


Input
Microproces
sor/ CPU

Address Bus

Control Bus

Figure 4: Design of Basic Microcomputer


Major Components of a Common PLC
POWER SUPPLY

Provides the voltage needed to run the primary PLC


components

I/O MODULES

Provides signal conversion and isolation between the


internal logic- level signals inside the PLC and the
field’s high level signal.

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Catu daya PLC
 Catu daya listrik digunakan untuk memberikan
pasokan catu daya ke seluruh bagian PLC
(termasuk CPU, memori dan lain-lain). Kebanyakan
PLC bekerja pada catu daya 24 VDC atau 220
VAC. Beberapa PLC catu dayanya terpisah
(sebagai modul tersendiri)
Major Components of a Common PLC
PROCESSOR

Provides intelligence to command and govern the


activities of the entire PLC systems.

MEMORY
Used to store data and program

PROGRAMMING DEVICE

used to enter the desired program that will determine


the sequence of operation and control of process
equipment or driven machine.
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Processor
The processor module contains the PLC’s
microprocessor, its supporting circuitry, and its memory
system.

The main function of the microprocessor is to analyze


data coming from field sensors through input modules,
make decisions based on the user’s defined control
program and return signal back through output modules
to the field devices. Field sensors: switches, flow, level,
pressure, temp. transmitters, etc. Field output devices:
motors, valves, solenoids, lamps, or audible devices.

The memory system in the processor module has two


parts: a system memory and an application memory.
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a. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

 The CPU controls, monitors and supervises all operations


within PLC.

 It is also caries out programmed instructions stored in the


memory.

 An internal communications highway also known as a bus


system, carries information to and from the CPU, memory and
I/O units under the control of the CPU.
Programming Device
Also known as:

 Industrial Terminal ( Allen Bradley )

 Program Development Terminal ( General Electric )

 Programming Panel ( Gould Modicon )

 Programmer ( Square D )

 Program Loader ( Idec-Izumi )

 Programming Console ( Keyence / Omron )


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Programming Device
Types:

 Hand held unit with LED / LCD display

 Desktop type with a CRT display

 Compatible computer terminal

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MEMORY
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3.1.1 FUNCTION OF EACH BLOCK:

b. Memory Unit
• For storage of programs.

• The user’s ladder logic program, the state of I/O in the memory of
PLC.

• The main program and the other programs necessary for the
operation of PLC.

• The organization of the data and information in the memory is called


memory map.

2 types of Memory
ROM RA
M
Memori
 Memori sistem (saat ini banyak yang mengimplementasikan
penggunaan teknologi flash) digunakan oleh PLC untuk sistem
kontrol proses. Selain berfungsi untuk menyimpan "sistem
operasi", juga digunakan untuk menyimpan program yang harus
dijalankan, dalam bentuk biner, hasil terjemahan diagram
tangga yang dibuat oleh pengguna atau pemrogram.
 Memori pengguna dibagi menjadi beberapa blok yang memiliki
fungsi khusus.Beberapa bagian memori digunakan untuk
menyimpan status masukan dan keluaran.
3.1.1 FUNCTION OF EACH BLOCK:

TYPES OF MEMORY:

RAM ROM
Random Access Memory Read Only Memory (read)

This memory can be read from This memory can be read only
and written to.

Storing all user’s programs Storing all system’s program

Entire contents will be lost if power Memory content remain when the
is switched off. power is switched off.
3.1.1 FUNCTION OF EACH BLOCK:

c. Input/ Output (I/O) Unit

 Input Unit:
Function as a medium that connects the external input
devices
(Switch, sensor & timer)

 Output Unit:
Function as a medium that connects the external output
devices to the CPU within PLC.
( Lamp, motor & solenoid )
I/O Module
• The I/O interface section of a PLC connects it to
external field devices.

• The main purpose of the I/O interface is to condition


the various signals received from or sent to the external
input and output devices.

• Input modules converts signals from discrete or analog


input devices to logic levels acceptable to PLC’s
processor.

• Output modules converts signal from the processor to


levels capable of driving the connected discrete or
analog output devices.
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INPUT
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Keluaran-keluaran PLC
sistem otomatis tidaklah lengkap jika tidak ada fasilitas
keluaran atau fasilitas untuk menghubungkan dengan
alat-alat eksternal (yang dikendalikan). Beberapa
alat atau piranti yang banyak digunakan adalah
motor, selenoida, relai, lampu indikator, speaker dan
lain sebagainya. Keluaran ini dapat berupa analog
maupun digital. Keluaran digital bertingkah seperti
sebuah saklar, menghubungkan dan memutuskan jalur.
Keluaran analog digunakan untuk menghasilkan sinyal
analog (misalnya, perubahan tegangan untuk
pengendalian motor secara regulasi linear sehingga
diperoleh kecepatan putar tertentu).
OUTPUT
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Memory Map Organization
•System memory includes an area called the EXECUTIVE,
composed of permanently-stored programs that direct all
system activities, such as execution of the users control
program, communication with peripheral devices, and other
SYSTEM system activities.
•The system memory also contains the routines that
implement the PLC’s instruction set, which is composed of
specific control functions such as logic, sequencing, timing,
counting, and arithmetic.
•System memory is generally built from read-only memory
devices.

APPLICATION
•The application memory is divided into the data table area
•Data Table and user program area.
•The data table stores any data associated with the user’s
•User Program control program, such as system input and output status data,
and any stored constants, variables, or preset values. The
data table is where data is monitored, manipulated, and
changed for control purposes.
•The user program area is where the programmed
instructions entered by the user are stored as an application
control program.

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Memory Designs
VOLATILE.
A volatile memory is one that loses its stored
information when power is removed.

Even momentary losses of power will erase any


information stored or programmed on a volatile memory
chip.

Common Type of Volatile Memory

RAM. Random Access Memory(Read/Write)


Read/write indicates that the information stored in the
memory can be retrieved or read, while write indicates
that the user can program or write information into the
memory. 85
Memory Designs

The words random access refer to the ability of any


location (address) in the memory to be accessed or
used. Ram memory is used for both the user memory
(ladder diagrams) and storage memory in many PLC’s.

RAM memory must have battery backup to retain or


protect the stored program.

86
Memory Designs
NON-VOLATILE
Has the ability to retain stored information when power is
removed, accidentally or intentionally. These memories
do not require battery back-up.

Common Type of Non-Volatile Memory

ROM, Read Only Memory


Read only indicates that the information stored in
memory can be read only and cannot be changed.
Information in ROM is placed there by the manufacturer
for the internal use and operation of the PLC.

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Memory Designs
Other Types of Non-Volatile Memory

PROM, Programmable Read Only Memory


Allows initial and/or additional information to be written
into the chip.

PROM may be written into only once after being


received from the PLC manufacturer; programming is
accomplish by pulses of current.

The current melts the fusible links in the device,


preventing it from being reprogrammed. This type of
memory is used to prevent unauthorized program
changes.
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Memory Designs
EPROM, Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

Ideally suited when program storage is to be semi-


permanent or additional security is needed to prevent
unauthorized program changes.

The EPROM chip has a quartz window over a silicon


material that contains the electronic integrated circuits.
This window normally is covered by an opaque material,
but when the opaque material is removed and the
circuitry exposed to ultra violet light, the memory
content can be erased.

The EPROM chip is also referred to as UVPROM.


89
Memory Designs
EEPROM, Electrically Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory

Also referred to as E2PROM, is a chip that can be


programmed using a standard programming device and
can be erased by the proper signal being applied to the
erase pin.

EEPROM is used primarily as a non-volatile backup for


the normal RAM memory. If the program in RAM is lost or
erased, a copy of the program stored on an EEPROM
chip can be down loaded into the RAM.

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PLC Operation
Basic Function of a Typical PLC

Read all field input devices via the input interfaces,


execute the user program stored in application memory,
then, based on whatever control scheme has been
programmed by the user, turn the field output devices
on or off, or perform whatever control is necessary for
the process application.

This process of sequentially reading the inputs,


executing the program in memory, and updating the
outputs is known as scanning.

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Examples of PLC Programming Software:

1. Allen-Bradley – Rockwell Software RSLogix500


2. Modicon - Modsoft
3. Omron – Syswin,CX Programmer,CX One
4. GE-Fanuc Series 6 – LogicMaster6
5. Square D- PowerLogic
6. Texas Instruments – Simatic
6. Telemecanique – Modicon TSX Micro
PLC Communications
Common Uses of PLC Communications Ports

 Changing resident PLC programs -


uploading/downloading from a supervisory controller
(Laptop or desktop computer).

 Forcing I/O points and memory elements from a


remote terminal.

Linking a PLC into a control hierarchy containing


several sizes of PLC and computer.

Monitoring data and alarms, etc. via printers or


Operator Interface Units (OIUs).
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PLC Communications
Serial Communications

PLC communications facilities normally provides serial


transmission of information.

Common Standards

RS 232

 Used in short-distance computer communications,


with the majority of computer hardware and
peripherals.
 Has a maximum effective distance of approx. 30 m at

9600 baud.
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PLC Communications
Local Area Network (LAN)

Local Area Network provides a physical link between all


devices plus providing overall data exchange
management or protocol, ensuring that each device can
“talk” to other machines and understand data received
from them.

LANs provide the common, high-speed data


communications bus which interconnects any or all
devices within the local area.

LANs are commonly used in business applications to


allow several users to share costly software packages
and peripheral equipment such as printers and hard disk 96
PLC Communications
RS 422 / RS 485

Used for longer-distance links, often between several


PCs in a distributed system. RS 485 can have a
maximum distance of about 1000 meters.

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Selecting a PLC

Criteria

• Number of logical inputs and outputs.


• Memory
• Number of special I/O modules
• Scan Time
• Communications
• Software
Specifications
OUTPUT-PORT POWER RATINGS

Each output port should be capable of supplying


sufficient voltage and current to drive the output
peripheral connected to it.

SCAN TIME

This is the speed at which the controller executes the


relay-ladder logic program. This variable is usually
specified as the scan time per 1000 logic nodes and
typically ranges from 1 to 200 milliseconds.

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Specifications
MEMORY CAPACITY

The amount of memory required for a particular


application is related to the length of the program and
the complexity of the control system. Simple applications
having just a few relays do not require significant amount
of memory. Program length tend to expand after the
system have been used for a while. It is advantageous to
a acquire a controller that has more memory than is
presently needed.

101
Karakteristik PLC:
INPUT/OUTPUT
1
0
4

 MODUL INPUT/OUTPUT PLC PADA DASARNYA ADALAH ANTARMUKA/INTERFACE


YANG MENGHUBUNGKAN PLC DENGAN PIRANTI INPUT/OUTPUT EKSTERNAL,
MELALUI SENSOR-SENSOR YANG TERHUBUNG KE MODUL INI , PLC MEMBACA
BESARAN-BESARAN FISIK (POSISI,GERAKAN,LEVEL,ARUS,TEGANGAN) YANG
TERDAPAT PADA SUATU PROSES ATAU MESIN .

 SECARA FISIK INPUT/OUPUT MODUL TERPISAH DARI MODUL CPU . HAL INI
TERJADI UNTUK MENJAGA AGAR KERUSAKAN PADA INPUT/OUTPUT TIDAK
MENYEBABKAN TERJADINYA HUBUNG SINGKAT PADA UNIT CPU ISOLASI .
RANGKAIAN MODUL DARI CPU INI UMUMNYA MENGGUNAKAN RANGKAIAN
OPTOCOUPLER
 MODUL I/O DISKRIT DAN MODUL I/O ANALOG

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 INPUT KE DAN OUPUT DARI SUATU PLC ADALAH PENTING UNTUK MEMANTAU
DAN MENGONTROL SUATU PROSES. BAIK INPUT MAUPUN OUTPUT DAPAT
DIKELOMPOKKAN MENJADI 2 JENIS DASAR YAITU: LOGIKA ATAU KONTINU
 OUTPUT KE AKTUATOR MEMUNGKINKAN SUATU PLC MENYEBABKAN SESUATU
TERJADI DALAM PROSES
 CONTOH AKTUATOR KATUP KUMPARAN: OUPUT YANG DAPAT MENSWITCH
SUATU ALIRAN HIDROLIK ATAU PNEUMATIK
 LAMPU: OUTPUT YANG DAPAT DIAKTIFKAN SECARA LANGSUNG DARI OUTPUT
PLC BOARD
 MOTOR STARTER:MOTOR YANG MENARIK SEJUMLAH ARUS YANG BESAR KETIKA
START, OLEH KARENA ITU DIBUTUHKAN MOTOR STARTER, YANG PADA
PRINSIPNYA ADALAH RELAY-RELAY YANG BESAR
 MOTOR SERVO: SUATU OUTPUT KONTINU DARI PLC DAPAT MEMERINTAHKAN
SUATU KECEPAT AN VARIABEL ATAU POSISI

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1
0
6

 OUPUT DARI PLC BIASANYA BERUPA RELAY TETAPI BISA JUGA KOMPONEN
ELEKTRONIKA SOLID STATE SEPERTI TRANSISTOR UNTUK OUTPUT DC ATAU
TRIAC UNTUK OUTPUT AC. OUTPUT KONTINU MEMBUTUHKAN MODUL OUTPUT
KHUSUS ( MODUL ANALOG ) DENGAN DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER
 INPUT BERASAL DARI SENSOR YANG MENGUBAH FENOMENA FISIK KE SINYAL
LISTRIK

 CONTOH SENSOR :
 PROXIMITY SWITCH : MENGGUNKAN INDUKTANSI , KAPASITANSI ATAU
CAHAYA UNTUK MENDETEKSI OBYEK SECARA LOGIKA
 SWITCH/SAKLAR : MEKANISME MEKANIK YANG AKAN MEMBUKA ATAU
MENUTUP KONTAK LISTRIK UNTUK SUATU SINYAL LOGIKA
 POTENSIOMETER : MENGUKUR POSISI ANGULAR SECARA TERUS MENERUS
MENGGUNAKAN TAHANAN

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1
0
7

 Indicator lamps, solenoid valves, and motor contactors (starters) are all examples of
discrete control devices. In a manner similar to discrete inputs, a PLC connects to any
number of different discrete final control devices through a discrete output channel.
Discrete output modules typically use the same form of opto-isolation to allow the
PLC’s computer circuitry to send electrical power to loads: the internal PLC circuitry
driving an LED which then activates some form of photosensitive switching device.
Alternatively, small electromechanical relays may be used to interface the PLC’s
output bits to real-world electrical control devices.
 An important concept to master when working with DC discrete I/O is the distinction
between current-sourcing andcurrent-sinking devices. The terms “sourcing” and
“sinking” refer to the direction of current (as denoted by conventional flow notation)
into or out of a device’s control wire. A device sending (conventional flow) current
out of its control terminal to some other device(s) is said to be sourcing current, while
a device accepting (conventional flow) current into its control terminal is said to
be sinking current.
 To illustrate, the following illustration shows a PLC output channel is sourcing current
to an indicator lamp, which issinking current to ground: 11/20/2018
INPUT
1
0
8

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1
0
9

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1
1
0

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1
1
1

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1
1
2

 Dari gambar 1 sampai gambar 3, terlihat bahwa secara fisik rangkaian pada
modul ini terpisah dari rangkaian internal (CPU). Isolasi rangkaian ini menggunakan
optocoupler dengan dua buah diode pemancar yang dipasang antiparalel. Hal ini
dilakukan untuk tujuan fleksibilitas penyambungan terminal input dengan catu daya
penggerak sensor atau saklar yang terhubung. Dalam hal ini, terminal common
pada modul dapat dihubungkan balk dengan polaritas yang lebih positif atau
lebih negatif dari catu dayanya
 Besar arus yang mengalir di dalam sebuah terminal input ketika sebuah saklar
tertutup umumnya berada dalam satuan miliampere (tipikalnya adalah 7
miliampere). Arus sebesar ini telah cukup untuk menggerakkan basis transistor pada
optocoupler menjadi ON. Jika menggunakan sumber tegangan yang lebih kecil dari
yang telah ditentukan oleh vendor PLC yang dipakai maka akan terjadi
situasi undercurrent, yaitu arus yang mengalir pada modul tidak dapat
menggerakan basis transistor pada optocoupler tersebut

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1
1
3

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1
1
4

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1
1
5

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OUTPUT
1
1
6

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1
1
7

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1
1
8

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1
1
9

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1
2
0

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Jenis modul output
1
2
1

 § output Relay
 output PLC jenis relay adalah yang paling fleksibel penggunaannya karena dapat
menggerakkan beban AC maupun DC. kelemahannya terletak pada
tanggapan switching-nya yang relatif lambat (sekitar 10 ms ), dan akan mengalami
kerusakan setelah beberapa juta siklus switching.
 Gambar 4 rangkaian internal output PLC Jenis relay
 Besar rating arus untuk setiap terminal umumnya tidak boleh melebihi 2 A untuk
tegangan 220 volt (untuk lebih jelasnya dapat dilihat pada manual PLC yang
digunakan). Bila batas besar rating arus ini dilampaui, akan menimbulkan
kerusakan pada modul output nya. Jika keluaran yang akan dikontrol merupakan
beban yang relatif besar (mengalirkan arus dengan jumlah besar) maka akan lebih
aman jika output relay ini mengontrol beban tersebut lewat relay luar.

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1
2
2

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1
2
3

 § output transistor
 output PLC jenis transistor, beban yang dapat dikontrol terbatas pada beban-
beban jenis DC saja. (besar arus yang bisa dilewatkan umumnya adalah 1 A,
dengan waktu respons kurang dari 1 ms)
 Berdasarkan transistornya, ada dua jenis output PLC ini: (1) jenis NPN dan (2) jenis
PNP. Pada prinsipnya kedua jenis keluaran ini adalah sama, yaitu dapat
mengalirkan arus atau daya dalam satu arah saja. Ada dua jenis mode operasi
transistor ini: (1) transistor digunakan sebagai penguat linier, dan (2) transistor
digunakan sebagai saklar. Dalam rangkaian internal PLC, Iransistor dioperasikan
sebagai saklar, yaitu dengan cara mengoperasikan pada daerah jenuhnya.
 Perlu ditekankan di sini, walaupun transistor ini berlaku sebagai saklar, tetapi
secara praktis akan selalu ada drop tegangan pada saklar ini (antara kaki
collector terhadap emiter) yang besarnya berkisar antara 1-2 volt

 Gambar 5 rangkaian internal output PLC Jenis Transistor


 11/20/2018
1
2
4

 Gambar 5 rangkaian internal output PLC Jenis Transistor


 jenis keluaran transistor NPN. Dari gambar, terlihat bahwa terminal common pada
modul output harus selalu dihubungkan dengan sumber tegangan positif (ingat,
transistor dalam operasinya hanya akan mengalirkan arus dari collector ke emiter
jika tegangan collector lebih positif dari tegangan emitter
 Modul output PLC jenis PNP memiliki prinsip kerja kebalikan dari jenis NPN yang
telah dibahas di atas.

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1
2
5

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1
2
6

 § output jenis triac


 output Triac terbatas pada beban jenis AC
(besar arus yang bisa dilewatkan umumnya
adalah 1 A, dengan waktu respons kurang
dari 1 ms)
 Triac adalah sebuah komponen semikonduktor
yang berfungsi mengalirkan arus bolak-balik.
Arus yang dialirkan dikontrol oleh terminal
gate pada triac tersebut dalam modul output
PLC jenis ini, triac digunakan untuk
memerlukan gerakkan beban-beban11/20/2018
AC lewat
1
2
7

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1
2
8

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1
2
9

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MODUL INPUT ANALOG
1
3
0

 Selain dapat mengolah sinyal digital, PLC juga dapat mengolah sinyal
analog.Modul ini biasanya didesain untuk membaca sinyal-sinyal standard industri
yakni 0 – 5 V, ±10 V, atau 4 – 20 mA. Untuk menggunakan analog input, modul ini
harus dihubungkan ke rangkaian PLC dan ditentukan Unit No.-nya. Unit No. ini
ditentukan dengan cara mengatur skrup Mach No. di depan Modul Analog Unit.
Skrup Mach No. ini ada 2 buah: satu skrup puluhan (x10¹) dan satu skrup satuan
(x10°). Jika ingin membuat modul ini memiliki Unit No. 12, putar skrup puluhan ke
angka 1 dan skrup satuan ke angka 2. Selain itu, di IO Table dan Unit Setup pada
CX-Programmer juga harus diberi Unit No. yang sama. Ingat, Unit No. modul ini
tidak boleh sama dengan modul lain karena akan bertabrakan pengalamatan
memorinya

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131
MODUL OUPUT ANALOG
1
3
2

 modul analog output digunakan untuk


mengeluarkan sinyal analog dari PLC. Sinyal
analog yang dapat dikeluarkan umumnya berada
dalam rentang sinyal-sinyal standard industri
seperti 4 – 20 mA. Sama seperti pada modul
analog input, modul analog output juga harus
diatur Unit No. nya terlebih dahulu untuk
menentukan pengalamatan memorinya. Selain itu,
resolusi dan jenis outputnya juga bisa ditentukan
(tegangan atau arus).
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I/O Circuits
4. Analog I/O

Circuits of this type sense or drive analog signals.


Analog inputs come from devices, such as
thermocouples, strain gages, or pressure sensors, that
provide a signal voltage or current that is derived from
the process variable.
Standard Analog Input signals: 4-20mA; 0-10V

Analog outputs can be used to drive devices such as


voltmeters, X-Y recorders, servomotor drives, and
valves through the use of transducers.
Standard Analog Output signals: 4-20mA; 0-5V; 0-10V

133
I/O Circuits
5. Special - Purpose I/O

Circuits of this type are used to interface PLCs to very


specific types of circuits such as servomotors, stepping
motors PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative)
loops, high-speed pulse counting, resolver and decoder
inputs, multiplexed displays, and keyboards.

This module allows for limited access to timer and


counter presets and other PLC variables without requiring
a program loader.

134
1
3
5 11/20/2018
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6 11/20/2018
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7 11/20/2018
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OUTPUTS

INPUTS MOTOR

CONTACTOR
LAMP

PUSHBUTTONS
PLC

139
Allen-Bradley 1746-1A16

L1 L2 I= Input
Module
I:2 slot # in rack

P. B SWITCH 0 Module
Terminal #
Address I:2.0/0

LADDER PROGRAM
INPUT
MODULE

WIRING DIAGRAM

140
CONTACTOR
L2 L1 N.
O

MOTOR
L2
C •SOLENOID
L1
•VALVES
FIELD •LAMP
WIRING •BUZZER

OUTPUT MODULE
WIRING
L1 O:4 L2

CONTACTOR 0
LADDER PROGRAM

141
Discrete Input
A discrete input also referred as digital input is an input that
is either ON or OFF are connected to the PLC digital input.
In the ON condition it is referred to as logic 1 or a logic high
and in the OFF condition maybe referred to as logic o or
logic low.
Normally Open
Pushbutton
Normally Closed
Pushbutton
Normally Open switch

Normally Closed switch

Normally Open contact

Normally closed contact


142
Analog Input
An analog input is an input signal that has a continuous
signal. Typical inputs may vary from 0 to 20mA, 4 to
20mA
or 0 to10V. Below, a level transmitter monitors the level
of
liquid in the tank. Depending on the level Tx, the signal
toLevel
the Transmitter IN
PLC can either increase or decreasePLC as the level
increases Analog
Tank
or decreases. Input
Module

143
Digital Output

A discrete output is either in an ON or OFF condition.


Solenoids,
contactors coils, lamps are example of devices connected to
the
Discrete or digital outputs. Below, the lamp can be turned ON
OUT
or OFF by the PLC output it is connected to.
PLC
Lamp
Digital
Output
Module

144
Analog Output

An analog output is an output signal that has a continuous


signal. Typical outputs may vary from 0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mA
or 0 to10V.
Electric to pneumatic transducer

OUT
E Supply air
PLC 0 to 10V P

Analog
Output
Module
Pneumatic control valve

145
SISTEM BILANGAN DAN KODE
1
4
6

 BINER
 OCTAL
 DESIMAL
 HEKSADESIMAL

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7

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CONTOH
1
4
8

 Example: What is 11112 in Decimal?


 The "1" on the left is in the "2×2×2" position, so that means 1×2×2×2 (=8)
 The next "1" is in the "2×2" position, so that means 1×2×2 (=4)
 The next "1" is in the "2" position, so that means 1×2 (=2)
 The last "1" is in the units position, so that means 1
 Answer: 1111 = 8+4+2+1 = 15 in Decimal
 Example: What is 10012 in Decimal?
 The "1" on the left is in the "2×2×2" position, so that means 1×2×2×2 (=8)
 The "0" is in the "2×2" position, so that means 0×2×2 (=0)
 The next "0" is in the "2" position, so that means 0×2 (=0)
 The last "1" is in the units position, so that means 1
 Answer: 1001 = 8+0+0+1 = 9 in Decimal

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CONTOH
1
4
9

Example: What is 1.12 in Decimal?


The "1" on the left side is in the units position, so that
means 1.
The 1 on the right side is in the "halves" position, so that
means 1×(1/2)
So, 1.1 is "1 and 1 half" = 1.5 in Decimal
Example: What is 10.112 in Decimal?
The "1" is in the "2" position, so that means 1×2 (=2)
The "0" is in the units position, so that means 0
The "1" on the right of the point is in the "halves"
position, so that means 1×(1/2)
The last "1" on the right side is in the "quarters"
position, so that means 1×(1/4) 11/20/2018
Binary Inputs and Outputs

 Both Decimal and Binary numbers use a positional weighting


system, eg:

10102 = 1x23+0x22+1x21+0x20 = 1x8 + 0x4 + 1x2 + 0x1 = 1010

decimal 100 (102) 10 (101) 1 (100)


4 0 3 400 + 0 + 3

binary 8 (23) 4 (22) 2 (21) 1 (20)


1 0 0 1 8+0+0+1
Binary to decimal
 Multiply each 1 bit by the appropriate power of 2 and add
them together.

? ? 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

100000112 = ……………….10 ?

1010011002 = ……………………10 ?
Binary Inputs and Outputs
 Number Representation - Binary to decimal
 A decimal number can be converted to binary by repeated
division by 2
number /2 remainder
155 77 1 Least Significant Bit
77 38 1
38 19 0
19 9 1
9 4 1
4 2 0
2 1 0
1 0 1 Most Significant bit

15510 = 100110112
Decimal to Binary

An alternative way is to use the “placement” method


128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 goes into 155 once leaving 27 to be placed


1

So 64 and 32 are too big (make them zero)


16 goes in once leaving 11
1 0 0 1

and so on…
154
Binary Inputs and Outputs
 Hexadecimal and Octal
 Writing binary numbers as strings of 1s and 0s can
be very tedious
 Octal (base 8) and Hexadecimal (base 16) notations
can be 512
octal
used to reduce
(83) 64 (82)
a long string
8 (81)
of binary digits.
1 (80)
1 2 0 7 512 + 128 + 7

hexadecimal 256 (162) 16 (161) 1 (160)


1 A F 256 + 160 + 15

Notice that hexadecimal requires 15 symbols (each number system needs 0


– base-1 symbols) and therefore A – F are used after 9.
biner
156
157
Octal as shorthand for Binary

 Each octal digit corresponds to 3 binary bits

binary octal
To convert a binary string: 10011101010011
000 0
001 1
Split into groups of 3:
010 2
010 011 101 010 011
011 3
2 3 5 2 3
100 4
101 5
Thus 100111010100112 = 235238
110 6
111 7
Similarly with Hexadecimal

 Each hex digit corresponds to 4 binary bits

To convert a binary string:


binary hex binary hex
10011101010011
0000 0 1000 8
0001 1 1001 9 Split into groups of 4:
0010 2 1010 A
0010 0111 0101 0011
0011 3 1011 B
0100 4 1100 C
0101 5 1101 D
1110 E Thus 100111010100112 = ……………16
0110 6
?
1111 F
0111 7
160
BINARY CODED DECIMAL (BCD)
161
kode
 Characters
 Three main coding schemes used: ASCII (widespread
use), EBCDIC (not used often) and UNICODE (new)
 ASCII
00 table
01 02 (in
03 hex)
04 05: 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f
nul soh sot etx eot enq ack bel bs ht nl vt np cr so si
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f
dle dc1 dc2 dc3 dc4 nak syn etb can em sub esc fs gs rs us
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f
sp ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f
@ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f
` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7a 7b 7c 7d 7e 7f
p q r s t u v w x y z { } ~ del
Ascii
1
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Ascii
1
6
4

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Contoh ascii
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Gray Codes
 Other codes exist for specific purposes Dec Gra
 Gray codes provide a sequence where y
only one bit changes for each increment 0 000
 Allows increments without ambiguity due to 1 001
bits changing at different times. 2 011
 E.g. changing from 3 to 4, normal binary has 3 010
all three bits changing 011 -> 100.
Depending on the order in which the bits 4 110
change any intermediate value may be 5 111
created.
6 101
7 100
Kode gray
1
6
7

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Kode gray
1
6
8

 Kode digunakan untuk pengecekan data sesuai


dengan urutan biner
 Biasa untuk piranti yang menggunakan posisi
angular
 Konsepnya adalah bilangan binernya hanya
berubah satu setiap naik atau turun
 Ini mempermudah mendeteksi terjadinya kesalahan
setiap perubahan

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6
9

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PARITY
1
7
0

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PARITY
1
7
1

 BIT PARITY DAPAT DITAMBAHKAN KE DATA


SEBAGAI PENGECEKAN KESALAHAN SEDERHANA
DATA YANG DIKIRIM,JIKA DATA YANG DIKIRIM
TERJADI KESALAHAN AKAN DIKIRIM ULANG ATAU
DIABAIKAN
 PARITY DITAMBAHKAN PADA DAA HINGGA 8
ATAU 9 BIT
 PARITY EVEN DAN ODD

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2

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Basic Concepts
 Simple gates
 AND
 OR
 NOT
 Functionality can be
expressed by a truth table
 A truth table lists output for
each possible input
combination
 Precedence
 NOT > AND > OR
 F =AB +AB
= (A (B)) + ((A) B)
Basic Concepts (cont.)
 Additional useful gates
 NAND
 NOR
 XOR
 NAND = AND + NOT
 NOR = OR + NOT
 XOR implements
exclusive-OR function
 NAND and NOR gates
require only 2 transistors
 AND and OR need 3
transistors!
Basic Concepts (cont.)
 Proving NAND gate is universal
Basic Concepts (cont.)
 Proving NOR gate is universal
177
Logic Chips (cont.)
Logic Chips (cont.)
 Integration levels
 SSI (small scale integration)
 Introduced in late 1960s
 1-10 gates (previous examples)

 MSI (medium scale integration)


 Introducedin late 1960s
 10-100 gates

 LSI (large scale integration)


 Introducedin early 1970s
 100-10,000 gates

 VLSI (very large scale integration)


 Introducedin late 1970s
 More than 10,000 gates
Logic Functions
 Logical functions can be expressed in several
ways:
 Truthtable
 Logical expressions

 Graphical form

 Example:
 Majority function
 Outputis one whenever majority of inputs is 1
 We use 3-input majority function
Logic Functions (cont.)
3-input majority function  Logical expression form
A B C F F=AB+BC+AC

0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
Logical Equivalence
 All three circuits implement F = A B function
Logical Equivalence (cont.)
 Derivation of logical expression from a circuit
 Trace from the input to output
 Write down intermediate logical expressions along the
path
Logical Equivalence (cont.)
 Proving logical equivalence: Truth table
method

A B F1 = A B F3 = (A + B) (A + B) (A + B)
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra (cont.)
1
8
7

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Boolean Algebra (cont.)
 Proving logical equivalence: Boolean algebra
method
 To
prove that two logical functions F1 and F2 are
equivalent
 Startwith one function and apply Boolean laws to
derive the other function
 Needs intuition as to which laws should be applied
and when
 Practice helps
 Sometimes it may be convenient to reduce both
functions to the same expression
 Example: F1= A B and F3 are equivalent
Logic Circuit Design Process
 A simple logic design process involves
 Problem specification
 Truth table derivation
 Derivation of logical expression
 Simplification of logical expression
 Implementation
Deriving Logical Expressions (cont.)
 3-input majority function  SOP logical expression
A B C F  Four product terms
 Because there are 4 rows with a
0 0 0 0 1 output
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 F=ABC+ABC+
1 0 0 0 ABC+ABC
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
Logical Expression Simplification
 Two basic methods
 Algebraic manipulation
 Use Boolean laws to simplify the expression
 Difficult to use
 Don’t know if you have the simplified form
 Karnaugh map (K-map) method
 Graphical method
 Easy to use
 Can be used to simplify logical expressions with a few
variables
Algebraic Manipulation
 Majority function example Added extra

ABC+ABC+ABC+ABC =

ABC+ABC+ABC+ABC+ABC+ABC

 We can now simplify this expression as

BC+AC+AB

 A difficult method to use for complex expressions


1
9
3

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Karnaugh Map Method
Note the order
Karnaugh Map Method (cont.)
Simplification examples
Karnaugh Map Method (cont.)
First and last columns/rows are adjacent
Karnaugh Map Method (cont.)
Minimal expression depends on groupings
Karnaugh Map Method (cont.)
No redundant groupings
Karnaugh Map Method (cont.)
Don’t cares simplify the expression a lot
Implementation Using NAND Gates
 Using NAND gates
 Get an equivalent expression

AB+CD=AB+CD
 Using de Morgan’s law

AB+CD=AB.CD
 Can be generalized
 Majority function

A B + B C + AC = A B . BC . AC
Idea: NAND Gates: Sum-of-Products, NOR Gates: Product-of-Sums
Implementation Using NAND Gates (cont.)

 Majority function
Introduction to Combinational Circuits

 Combinational circuits
 Output depends only on the current inputs
 Combinational circuits provide a higher level of
abstraction
 Helpin reducing design complexity
 Reduce chip count

 We look at some useful combinational circuits


2
0
4

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0
5

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0
6

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0
7

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2
0
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PROGRAMMING

Normally Open Normally Closed


(NO) (NC)

Power flows through these contacts when they are closed. The
normally open (NO) is true when the input or output status bit
controlling the contact is 1. The normally closed (NC) is true
when the input or output status bit controlling the contact is 0.

209
Coils

Coils represent relays that are energized when power flows to


them. When a coil is energized it causes a corresponding
output to turn on by changing the state of the status bit controllin
the output to 1. That same output status bit maybe used to contr
normally open or normally closed contact anywhere in the progra

210
Boxes

Boxes represent various instructions or functions that are


Executed when power flows to the box. Some of these
Functions are timers, counters and math operations.

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AND OPERATION

A B C
Rung

Each rung or network on a ladder program represents


a logic operation. In the rung above, both inputs A and B
must be true (1) in order for the output C to be true (1).

214
OR OPERATION

A C
Rung

In the rung above, it can be seen that either input A or B


is be true (1), or both are true, then the output C is true (1).

215
NOT OPERATION

A C
Rung

In the rung above, it can be seen that if input A is be true (1),


then the output C is true (0) or when A is (0), output C is 1.

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BAHASA PEMROGRAMAN PLC
2
3
8

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BAHASA PEMROGRAMAN PLC
2
3
9

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Fungsi move
3
1
0

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1

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Fungsi matematika
3
1
2

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konversi
3
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Fungsi logika
3
1
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 PERBANDINGAN

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FUNGSI BOOLEAN
3
2
3

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KESIMPULAN
8
0 MERAKIT SISTEM PLC: MEREK PLC,KABEL, PC
 INSTALL SOFTWARE PLC
 PELAJARI SOFTWARE PLC
 BUAT CONTOH-CONTOH KASUS
 MASUKKAN KE DALAM MEMORI PLC UNTUK
DIJALANKAN
 JALANKAN PROGRAM PLC TERSEBUT
 AMATI HASIL /OUTPUT NYA

11/20/2018