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# REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

## Author: professor Jon Kleppe

Assistant producers:
Farrokh Shoaei
Khayyam Farzullayev

NTNU

ENTER
REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

## Conservation of Conservation of mass

mass

Conservation of
 Control element
momentum

u
Black Oil Model

Flow Equation DX

Initial and
Boundary  Mass balance:
Conditions

Multiphase Flow
Mass into the Mass out of the  Rate of change of mass 
   
element at x  element at x + Dx  inside the element 
Non-horizontal
Flow
or

uAx  uAx  Dx  ADx
Multidimensional
Flow
t
Coordinate
Systems 
  Au   A   
x t

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

## Conservation of Conservation of momentum

mass

Conservation of
momentum
 Semi-empirical Darcy's equation:

## Black Oil Model k P

u
 x
Flow Equation

Initial and
 Forchheimer equation:
Boundary
Conditions P 
  u  u n
x k
Multiphase Flow
where n is proposed by Muscat to be 2.
Non-horizontal
Flow

## Multidimensional  Brinkman equation:

Flow

P   2u
Coordinate
Systems
 u  2
x k x

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

Conservation of
mass
 Constitutive equation for porous materials:
Conservation of
momentum  rock compressibility:

## Black Oil Model  1   

cr    
   P T
Flow Equation

d
Initial and
Boundary
 cr
Conditions
dP

Multiphase Flow
 Constitutive equations for fluids :

Non-horizontal
Flow  fluid compressibility :

Multidimensional
 1  V 
Flow c f    
 V  P T
Coordinate
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

## Conservation of Black Oil Model

mass

Conservation of
momentum
 The main parameters :

## Black Oil Model volume at reservoir conditions

Formation Volume Factor for each fluid, B : B 
volume at standard conditions
Flow Equation

## Initial and Solution Gas-Oil Ratio, Rso: Rso 

volume of gas evolved from oil at standard conditions
Boundary volume of oil at standard conditions
Conditions

## Multiphase Flow  oS   gS Rso

density of oil at reservoir conditions: o 
Bo
Non-horizontal
Flow
ρoS : density of oil at standard conditions
Multidimensional
Flow ρgS : density of gas at standard conditions

Coordinate
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

Conservation of
mass
Typical pressure dependencies
Conservation of
momentum

## Black Oil Model

Bw Bg Bo Rso
Flow Equation

Initial and
Boundary
Conditions
P P Pb P Pb P
Multiphase Flow

Non-horizontal
Flow
w g o
Multidimensional
Flow

Coordinate
Systems
P P P

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

## Conservation of Flow Equation

mass

Conservation of  For a :
momentum

##  Single phase flow

Black Oil Model

 One-dimensional
Flow Equation

 Horizontal system
Initial and
Boundary
Conditions

 Assuming
Multiphase Flow

##  Darcy's equation to be applicable.

Non-horizontal  The cross sectional area is constant.
Flow

Multidimensional
Flow  The flow equation becomes:
  k P     
   
Coordinate
Systems
x  B x  t  B 

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

## Conservation of Initial and Boundary Conditions

mass

Conservation of
momentum
1. Initial conditions (IC) :

## Black Oil Model

 The initial state of the primary variables of the system:
Flow Equation
P(x, t  0)  P0
Initial and
Boundary
Conditions

## Multiphase Flow  For non-horizontal systems:

Non-horizontal
Flow P(z,t  0)  Pref  (z  zref ) g
Multidimensional
Flow Where Pref is reference pressure & ρ is fluid densities

Coordinate
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

Conservation of
mass
2. Basic types of BC’s:

##  Pressure conditions (Dirichlet conditions)

Conservation of
momentum
 Rate conditions (Neumann conditions)
Black Oil Model

 Dirichlet conditions:
Flow Equation
Applied to the simple linear system described above:

Initial and
Boundary
Conditions
P( x  0, t  0)  PL

Multiphase Flow P( x  L, t  0)  PR

Non-horizontal
Flow
 Neumann conditions:
Specify the flow rates at the end faces of the system:
Multidimensional
Flow kA  P 
QL    
  x  x0
Coordinate
Systems kA  P 
QR    
  x  x L

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

Conservation of
mass

Before production:
Conservation of
momentum

## Flow Equation GOC GAS

OIL
Initial and
OIL
Boundary
Conditions
WOC
Multiphase Flow
WATER
Non-horizontal
Flow

Z
Multidimensional
Flow

Coordinate
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

Conservation of
mass
After production:

Conservation of
momentum

## Black Oil Model BC: BC:

kA P
k=0q 0 1) Pbh = constant
 x
Flow Equation 2) Q = constant
GOC GAS

## Initial and OIL

OIL
Boundary
Conditions

WOC
Multiphase Flow
WATER
BC:
Non-horizontal BC:
Flow q=0
1) Pbh = constant
AQUIFER
2) Qinj = constant
Multidimensional
Flow Z

Coordinate
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

mass

## Conservation of  Continuity equation for each fluid phase :

momentum

  l ul    l S l  l  o, w, g
Black Oil Model x t

Flow Equation
 Darcy equation for each phase :
Initial and
Boundary kkrl Pl
Conditions ul   l  o, w, g
 l x
Multiphase Flow

##  Oil density equation:

Non-horizontal
Flow
 oS   gS Rso
o    oL   oG
Bo
Multidimensional
Flow

## Coordinate oL: the part of oil remaining liquid at the surface

Systems oG : the part that is gas at the surface

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

Conservation of
mass  the oil equation only includes the part of the oil remaining liquid at the surface
which is: ρOL
Conservation of  The continuity equation for gas has to be modified to include solution gas as
momentum well as free gas which is: ρG & ρOG

## Black Oil Model

Flow Equation
 The oil continuity equation:
Initial and
Boundary

Conditions  oLuo    oL So 
x t
Multiphase Flow

##  The gas continuity equation:

Non-horizontal
Flow

  g u g  oGuo    g S g  oG So 
x t
Multidimensional
Flow

Coordinate
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

## Conservation of  After substituting the

mass
Darcy's equations

momentum
Well rate terms

## Black Oil Model

The flow equations become:

## Flow Equation   kkro Po    S 

   qo   o 
x  o Bo x  t  Bo 
Initial and
Boundary
Conditions   kkrg Pg kk Po    S g S 
 Rso ro  qg  Rso qo    Rso o 
x   g Bg x oBo x  t  Bg Bo 
Multiphase Flow

  kkrw Pw    S 
Non-horizontal
   qw   w 
Flow
x   w Bw x  t  Bw 

Where:
Multidimensional
Flow Pcow  Po  Pw

Pcog  Pg  Po
Coordinate
Systems
S
l  o, w, g
l 1

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

## Conservation of Non-horizontal Flow

mass

Conservation of
momentum
 One-dimensional, inclined flow:

## Black Oil Model u D

a
Flow Equation

Initial and
Boundary x
Conditions

Multiphase Flow
 Darcy equation:

k  P dD 
u   g 
Non-horizontal   x dx 
Flow
which can be written:
Multidimensional k  P 
Flow u    sin a 
  x 
Coordinate
– dip angle: α
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

## Conservation of Multidimensional Flow

mass

 One-phase
Conservation of
momentum  Three-dimensional flow
 Cartesian coordinates
Black Oil Model

Flow Equation
 u x    u y    u z     
x y z t

Initial and
Boundary
Conditions  Corresponding Darcy equations :

Multiphase Flow
k x  P D 
ux     
Non-horizontal
  x x 
Flow

k y  P D 
uy     
y 
Multidimensional
Flow   y

Coordinate k z  P D 
Systems uz     
  z z 

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

mass

Conservation of
momentum
y r
Black Oil Model

x
Flow Equation

Initial and
Boundary
Conditions

z z
Multiphase Flow

## Non-horizontal  Spherical coordinates:

Flow

Multidimensional
j r
Flow

q
Coordinate
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

Conservation of Questions
mass
1. Write the mass balance equation (one-dimentional, one-phase).
Conservation of
momentum
2. Write the most common relationship between velocity and pressure, and write an
Black Oil Model alternative relationship used for high fluid velocities.

Flow Equation 3. Write the expression for the relationship between porosity and pressure.

Initial and 4. List 3 commonly used expressions for relating fluid density to pressure.
Boundary
Conditions
5. Describe briefly Black Oil model.

Multiphase Flow
6. Sketch typical dependencies of the standard Black Oil parameters.

Non-horizontal
Flow 7. Write Darcy equation for one-dimentional, inclined flow.

Multidimensional
Flow 8. Write continuity equation for one-phase, three-dimensional flow in cartesian
coordinates.
Coordinate
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

Conservation of
mass
References
Conservation of
momentum

## Black Oil Model

 Kleppe J.: Reservoir Simulation, Lecture note 2

Flow Equation

Initial and
Boundary
Conditions

Multiphase Flow

Non-horizontal
Flow

Multidimensional
Flow

Coordinate
Systems

REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS

mass

##  Title: REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS (PDF)

Conservation of
momentum

 Author:
Black Oil Model
 Name: Prof. Jon Kleppe

Flow Equation
NTNU
Initial and
Boundary S.P. Andersensvei 15A
Conditions 7491 Trondheim

## Multiphase Flow  Website

Non-horizontal  Email
Flow

 Size: 450 Kb
Multidimensional
Flow

Coordinate
Systems