Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

HUMAN CHANGES OF SOIL

STRUCTURE
PRESENTED BY INDRANIL BANERJEE
ENROLLMENT NO-CEM18005

SUB:ENGINEERING BEHAVIOUR OF SOIL(CE501)


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
TEZPUR UNIVERSITY
1ST SEMESTER,AUTUMN 2018
CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• LAND USE EFFECTS SOIL
• FOREST REMOVAL
• CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENTSINDUSTRIAL WASTE
• INDUSTRIAL WASTE
• AGRICULTURAL EFFECTS
• FARMING
• MINING
• REFFERENCE
INTRODUCTION

• . Soil helps sustain life on Earth—including our life. We


already know that soil supports the growth of plants,
which in turn supply food for animals. Therefore, soil
provides us with nearly all the foods which we eat. But • The global human population has grown from
that’s not all. Many other items we use, such as cotton approximately 600 million at the beginning of the
clothing and medicines, come from plants. Lumber in our eighteenth century to close to 7.6 billion today. human
home comes from trees. Even the oxygen also comes from activities are now at such a scale as to rival forces of
plants. Besides supporting the growth of plants, soil plays nature in their influence on soil changes.
other life sustaining roles. Soil helps purify, or clean, water
as it drains through the ground and into rivers, lakes, and
oceans. Decomposers in soil also help recycle nutrients by
breaking down the remains of plants and animals,
releasing nutrients that living plants use to grow.
LAND USE EFFECTS SOIL
Changing soil carbon Physical properties Chemical properties
Effects soil properties • Structure • Cation exchange capacity
• Consistency • pH
• physical
• density • Soil salinity
• chemical
• Soil solidity
FOREST REMOVAL
• In a normal forest ecosystem, the forest will regenerate given enough time. However, in some climates
and with particular land clearing, the trees will never grow back and the ecosystem is changed forever.
• The effect of the increased exposure to the Sun is the change to the soil structure and soil moisture
regime. Increased exposure will create greater drying and organic matter will be destroyed (through
Destroy forest oxidation). This will reduce the binding power of the soil.
ecosystem
CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT
• To make roads, houses, shopping malls, and other buildings, people need to dig up the soil. Some of the soil at
construction sites washes or blows away because its protective plant cover has been removed. The soil that is
washed or blown away ends up in nearby low lying areas, in rivers and streams, or in downstream lakes or
reservoirs. This soil can cause problems by making rivers and lakes muddy and harming the organisms that live
Construction in them. The build up of soil on riverbeds raises the level of the rivers and may cause flooding. The soil can also
Effects fill up lakes and reservoirs.
INDUSTRIAL WASTE
LAND USE AGRICULTURAL EFFECTS
• the agricultural practices create compaction reducing the absorption of air and water and decreasing root growth
• degrade sustain or increase soil organic matter over time.

.
FARMING
Farmers often add nutrients to soil in the form of organic or artificial fertilizers to make their
crops grow better. However, some fertilizers can make it difficult for microorganisms in the
soil to produce nutrients naturally. Fertilizers also add to water pollution when rainwater
draining from fields carries the excess nutrients to rivers, lakes, and oceans. Over time, many
farming practices lead to the loss of soil.
MINING
• In mining operations that expose sulfide minerals, the increased chemical weathering
causes a type of pollution known as acid drainage. Abandoned mines can fill with
rainwater. Sulfide minerals react with the air and the water to produce sulfuric acid.
Then the acid water drains from the mines, polluting the soil in surrounding areas.
REFFERENCE
1 . https://www.classzone.com/science_book/mls_grade7_FL/248_252.pdf
2. https://www.quora.com/How-does-deforestation-impact-soil-erosion
3. WILLARD H. CARMEAN, Athens Forest Research Center, Central States Forest Experiment
Station, Athens, Ohio, THE STRUCTURE OF FOREST SOILS
https://kb.osu.edu/bitstream/handle/1811/4444/V57N03_165.pdf
4. Mitchell, J.K. and Soga, K. Fundamentals of soil behavior, 3rd ED. , john Wiley & sons, New
Jersey, USA,2005.
5. Yong, R.N., and Warkentin. B.P., Soil Properties and Behavior, Elsevier, Amsterdam, the
Netherlands, 1975.
Thank you