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# 6) Gauss’s law

## electric field at r due to a point chage q at (0,0)

q
E er Coulomb' s law
4r 2
( : dielectric constant, 1/4  9 109 in vacuum in mks unit)

q
D  εE, D er
4r 2
1
d  sin dd  2
dA
r
q 2 1
D  nd  D cos d  DdA  r d   qd
4r 2
4
q q

closed
D  ndσ 
4π total d 

 4  q ( q inside  )
surface σ solidangle

## For multi-sources,  D  ndσ   D  ndσ   q

closed i closed
i
i
i

surface σ surface σ
 D  ndσ  total charge inside the closed surface
closed
surface σ

 D  ndσ 
closed
 d 
volume
Gauss’s Law
surface σ bounded by 

## Using the divergence theorem,

 D  ndσ 
closed
   D 
volume
 d
volume
surface σ bounded by  bounded by 

  D   ext
7) Example of gauss’s law. E=?
a) For electrostatic problem, E=0 inside
b) For symmetry, E should be vertical.
Dn  D ,  D  nd  D  (surface area)
total charge inside is C(surface area) for C surface charge density.
D  (surface area)  C  (surface area)
D C
Mathematical methods in the physical sciences 3rd edition Mary L. Boas

## Lecture 22 Curl and Stoke’s theorem

11. Curl and Stoke’s theorem
    
  V  curl V  ( , , )  (Vx , V y ,Vz )
x y z
i j k
   
 
x y z
Vx Vy Vz 
v
Ex. vω r�
r sin  
ѴѴ�
vω�r�-(�� )r ω( ω) r( )  r
��
x �y � z�
ω(�� r )  ω � + + � 3ω
��
x �y � z�
� � � ��
�)r  �
(ω � x +  y + z � (ix + jy + kz )  i x + j y + k z  ω
� �x �y �
z �

y � z
since  0

x � x

##    v    (ω  r )  2ω “Curl v gives the angular velocity.”

1) meaning of curl circulatio n  V  dr

curl V  0

curl V = 0

curl V  0

curl V = 0

curl V  0
cf. (from ‘Griffiths’)

vs.
cf. (from ‘Griffiths’)
Example 1.5

## v a  - yxˆ + xyˆ (Fig. 1.19a)

v b  xyˆ (Fig. 1.19b)
................ then, their curls?

  v a  2zˆ ,
  v a  zˆ .
 V  dr   (curl V)  kdxdy   (curl V )  nd ,
around d d d

1
(  V )  n  lim
d 0 d  V  dr
around d

good

Stoke’s theorem
curve
 V  dr   (  V)  nd
surface
bounding
Example 1. V  4 yi + xj + 2 zk ,  (  V)  nd  ?
over the hemisphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2  a 2 , z  0.
  V  -3k

## (a) integrate the expression at it stands

(b) use Stoke’s theorem and evaluate the line integral around the circle
(c) use Stoke’s theorem to say that the integral is the same over any
surface bounded by the circle, for example, the planar area inside the
circle.
nk
   V   n   - 3k   k  -3
Ampere’s law  H  dr  I
C

H : magnetic field
C : closed curve
I : current
For a specific case,
2

 H  dr   H rd   H r  2  I
C 0

I
H
2r

 H  dr  I   J  nd ,
C
J : current densitiy cf. I   J  nd

 H  dr   (  H)  nd
C

##  (  H)  nd   J  nd

H  J : one of the Maxwell equations