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At the end of the session the students will be

able to:-

 Identify and name the symbols in flow diagram

 Sketch the right symbols of a flow diagram
 Explain the function the symbols used in flow
 One of the basic plant drawings largely used in oil refining
and other process industries.

 The term “piping” means not only “pipe” but fitting, valves,
flanges, and other items which form part of the overall piping

 Instrumentation is shown by symbols on the flow diagram and

piping drawing.
Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
Process operators to familiarize themselves with :
 Flow schemes
 Process/utility interlock system
 Control loop identification
 Equipment list
 Check blinding point locations
 To locate process instrument.
 P&ID is complex due to the frequent advancement of
electronics, process computers and instruments which is
adapted in the process industries.

 In order to utilize P&ID effectively by operations personnel

it is imperative for the operators to continuously update
their knowledge in process instruments based on the
modern trend in plant process design.
Process line



Line Color Code

Instrument Letter
Storage Vessel
Process Pressure Vessel
Material Handling Equipment
Processing Equipment
Size Reducing Equipment
Furnace and Boilers
Heat Transfer
Pump and Compressor
Symbol Name Function
Particles are separated from a fluid by
gravitational forces acting on the particles.
The particles were solid,gas,liquid and the fluid was
a liquid or a gas

To remove the particles from liquid stream so that

Drum the fluid is free of particles contaminants

Settling device in which the outward force on the

particles at high tangential velocities is many times
the force gravity.
 For separation of small solid particles or mist from
Cyclone gases.
The gas-solid particle mixture enter the cyclone
and enter in a rotating motion.
Gas and solid will separate because of the forces.
Electrical Precipitator


Symbol Name Function

To remove the particles from liquid
stream so that the fluid is free of
Open Settling particles contaminants.

To separate solid/liquid mixture

Precipitator Sedimentation

Drum Settler Cyclone Open Settling Tank

A container, usually for holding liquids, sometimes for
compressed gases

Symbol Name Function

An atmospheric tank is
a container for holding
Atmospheric tank
a liquid at
(cone roof)
atmospheric pressure.

-To gain storage and

Cone bottom bin ease of unloading.
(bulk storage)
-Used for liquid, solid,
slurry and silo
Symbol Name Function
A storage tank
commonly used to
store large quantities
of petroleum products
such as crude oil or
• roof will floats on the
surface of the
Floating roof tank stored liquid.
• roof rises and falls
with the liquid level
in the tank.
• eliminates breathing
losses and greatly
reduces the
evaporative loss of
the stored.
Symbol Name Function

Use for collection systems,

liquid storage or as
Open top bulk storage secondary containment
(non-pressure) for vertical tanks in indoor
or outdoor installations.

A pressure vessel is a
closed container
designed to hold gases or
Pressure storage liquids at
(sphere or spheroid) a pressure substantially
different from the
ambient pressure.
Symbol Name Function
Use for collection
systems, temporary
liquid storage or as
Close top bulk storage secondary
(non-pressure) containment for
vertical tanks in indoor
or outdoor installations.

Close top bulk storage (non-pressure) Atmospheric tank (cone roof)

Cone bottom bin(bulk storage)
Floating roof tank

Pressure storage(sphere or spheroid)

To store the material with pressure and at the same time, other process
occur in the vessel, example distillation, separation

Symbols Name Function

-as a storage vessel
Horizontal Drums -handling the material
with pressure
-as a storage vessel
-handling the material
Jacketed vessel (partial)
with high pressure

-as a storage vessel

-handling the material
Vertical Drums with pressure

-consist of multi-stage
trays in vessel
Packeted plate section -process in vessel
columns (tower) *adsorption,distillation
(separate multi
1. What is P & ID.
2. List Five (5) categories of equipment
3. Draw and named one (1) of the symbol
of the
a) Separator
b) Storage vessel
c) Process vessel pressure
Jacketed Vessel (Partial)


Packeted Plate Section Columns
An equipment use to handle/transfer the material from other component

Symbol Name Function

-as temporary storage
-to transport material from
Feeder &
one unit to another
-the material in slurry, liquid,
silo, solid (small particles)
-to filter the material
according to the screener
-separation process
-to discharge and isolate
the material
-Used to packaging
Rotary feeder according to the volume
and weight.
-Material in powder, crystals,
or pellet, granules
Symbols Name Function
Mixer -to mix two or more difference
component until it reach
homogenous state

Settler -Use to separate the material

from unwanted material
-The unwanted material will
precipitate at the bottom of

Feeder & Hopper Mixer Settler

Rotary Feeder

Exercise 1.1
a. Describe briefly the function of equipment below
i. Dryers
ii. Pump and Compressors
iii. Heat Exchangers
iv. Heat Transfers
v. Furnace and Boilers
vi. Size Reducing Equipment
vii. Drivers
b. List and sketch standard equipment symbols in (a).
Refer your answers to standard references used in plant
Exercise 1.1
Exercise 1.1
Exercise 1.1
Identify, name and list the number of process equipment in P & ID above
Steam Traced Line
Y Type Strainer Blindable flange Reducer Reducer
Concerntric Encerntric
Spectacle blind

Steam Trap
Exercise 1.2
List, sketch symbol and describe briefly the function of
valves used regularly in the oil and gas industry.
Tabulate your findings in a table as follow.
Symbol Name Photo Function

Gate Valve On /off flow

Symbol Name Photo Function

A globe valve,
is used for
regulating flow
in a pipeline
Instrument Type (Tag



 A circle or oval figures is used to explain the

instrumentation type, function and identifying
 The circle is commonly called “Balloon” or “Bubble”
Identify all the instrumentation used in P& ID above
Exercise 1.3