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NATURAL COLORANTS: FOOD


COLORANTS FROM NATURAL SOURCES

SUBMITTED BY-PRABHJOT KAUR


REGISTRATION NO. -1732063
MSC FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
SEMESTER-3RD
IK GUJRAL PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
KAPURTHLA, PUNJAB
CONTENT
 Introduction
 History
 Classification
o Source
o Chemical structure
o Hue and application
 Other colors
 Conclusion
INTRODUCTION
 Food colors are any substance that is added to
food or drink to change its color for
acceptability.
 It has been observed that within last10–15 years,
there has been a distinct move towards naturals,
especially within flavors and colors.

Color is one of those


important ingredients
upon which the quality
of food and flavor can
be judged.
WHY FOOD COLOURS
 Safety and freshness
 Nutritional value, to improve
taste, texture and
appearance of the product
 Influence Consumer to
buy a product through visual
perception.
HISTORY OF FOOD COLOURS
 Around 1200 BC (Bronze age), Cleopatra and others
added saffron in butter as first colorant to put a rich
yellow color.
 By 1900, many foods and drugs in U.S. were artificially
colored with many poisonous materials such as lead,
arsenic, and mercury to hide inferior or defective
foods.
 In 1906, Congress passed the Food and Drugs Act,
which prohibited the use of poisonous or deleterious
colors in food industries.
 In1962 The first EU directive, focussing on the use of
colorants in foods was published. 36 colors (20
natural and 16 artificial) were considered safe for
human consumption.
WHY THIS SHIFT ?

NATURAL COLOURS ARE BEST OVER ARTIFICIAL


COLOURS REASONS:
Artificial food colorings causes:
 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
(ADHD)
 Behavioral problems
 Depression
 Food allergies
 Headaches and migraines
ACCORDING TO FSSAI
FSSAI permits the use of the following whether
derived naturally or manufactured artificially.
 Carotene & Carotenoids
 Chlorophyll
 Riboflavin
 Caramel
 Annatto
 Saffron
 Curcumin or turmeric
Role of EFSA(European Food
Safety Authority)
EFSA has three main tasks in relation to food colors:
 Evaluating the safety of new food colors or
proposed new uses of existing food colors before
they can be authorised for use in the EU
 Re-evaluating all food colors already permitted for
use in the EU before 20 January 2009 (completed
in 2016)
 Responding to ad-hoc requests from the European
Commission to review certain food colors in the
light of new scientific information or changing
conditions of use.
CATEGORIES OF FOOD
COLORS
 NATURAL COLORS: Pigments made by
living organisms.
Example: Beetroot extract, luetin, annatto.
 NATURE-IDENTICAL COLORS: Man-made
pigments which are also found in nature.
Example: Betacarotene and canthaxanthin.
 ARTIFICIAL COLORS: Artificial colors are
purely man-made colors.
Example: Alura red, Brilliant blue etc.
TYPES AND USES OF NATURAL
COLORS

More popularly known as “Ratanjot” in the


northwestern Himalayas, the extract from
roots
It is a popular food color plant with
medicinal value.
NATURAL FOOD COLORS
A natural food color is any dye or pigment which when
added to food products enhances therapeutic and
medicinal properties in it.

OBTAINED FROM: AVAILIBILITY :


 Vegetables  Liquids
 Seeds  Liquid gel dye
 Flowers
 Powders
 Fruits
 Gels
 Algae
 Pastes
 Insects
Eg ; Seed pods of achiote (Bixa orellana) also
known as achiote. Native artisans use the
reddish oil to dye chambira palm fiber.

FSSAI
Annatto is to
be prepared
only in
permitted
edible oil as
listed in
regulations
and the use
must be
mentioned
Annatto is an orange-red condiment and food on the label.
coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote
tree.
CLASSIFICATION BY SOURCE
PLANT-DERIVED
 Organic compounds with unique
physicochemical properties.
 Plant pigments include a variety of chemical
classes, such as-
 Porphyrins,
 Carotenoids,
 Anthocyanins,
 Betalains
ANIMAL
 Pigments also serve a variety of purposes, including
transportation of blood oxygen, protection from
predators or UV radiation, mating.
 Colors are the result of physical nano scale
structuring causing selective reflectance,
diffraction, scattering of certain light waves, and
by pigments such as anthraquinones, melanins and
others.

Cochineal extract
MICROBIAL
Bacterial and fungal organisms produce a
variety of different types of pigments, such
as carotenoids and Monascus pigments,
resulting in color expression of almost all
hues.

Spirulina is a type of blue-


green algae that is rich in
protein, vitamins, minerals,
carotenoids
and antioxidants compared to
other sea vegetables, spirulina
has been shown to be more
easily digestible and have
greater nutrient bioavailability.
CLASSIFICATION BY CHEMICAL
STRUCTURE
NITROGEN-HETEROCYCLIC
DERIVATIVES: BETALAINS
 They are composed of two major groups:
Red-violet betacyanins, which are
condensation products of betalamic acid
Yellow-orange betaxanthins ,which are
condensation products of betalamic acid
and amines.
 Stability is highly affected by intrinsic and
extrinsic factors.
FLAVONOID DERIVATIVES:
ANTHOCYANINS
Water-soluble pigments
that impart vivid red to blue Difficulties due to
poor stability;
color to plants. color of
 Six major aglycones anthocyanins is
sensitive to light,
(anthocyanidins) are heat, oxygen,
found in commonly and pH condition,
consumed fruits and which limits their
use in different
vegetables, differing in food products
degree of hydroxylation
and methoxylation.
ISOPRENOID DERIVATIVES:
CAROTENOIDS Electron-rich,
highly
 Carotenoids are an important group unsaturated
of lipid-soluble pigments with colors chemical
ranging from yellow to orange to red. composition,
carotenoids
 They can be classified into two are vulnerable
categories: to oxidation
CAROTENES-which contain only and
polyunsaturated hydrocarbons isomerization
XANTHOPHYLLS- which contain during food
processing
polyunsaturated hydrocarbons with
and storage.
some oxygen functional groups.
PYRROLE DERIVATIVES:
CHLOROPHYLLS
 Pyrrole are characterized by a five-member
ring consisting of four carbon atoms and one
nitrogen atom, and in biological systems, they
play many useful roles such as forming
hydrogen bonds, coordinating metals, and
stacking interactions.
 They are the building blocks of many
heteroaromatic rings and linear polypyrroles.
 Pyrrole derivatives include heme and
chlorophyll pigments.
CLASSIFICATION BY HUE
AND APPLICATION
WARM COLORS

 Include yellow and red hues and are


generally related with warmth and
movement.
 These colors are often used in foods and
restaurants to stimulate appetite and gain
consumer attention.
RED
 Prevalent distribution in
fruits and vegetables and
their ability to stimulate
appetite .
 Red colorants are present
in many foods, including
beverages,
confectionaries, dairy
products , meats, snacks,
and cereals.
ORANGE-YELLOW
 Commonly used pigments
involve α-, β-, γ-carotene,
lycopene, capsanthin, and
bixin, among others.
 Lutein is a common yellow
carotenoid that is
commercially available as a
food colorant.
 Aztec marigold is an
important source of lutein.
COOL COLORS

 Incontrast to warm colors, cool colors are


considered to calm and relax the
observer , often associated with water or
the sky and include the range of hues
between purple, blue, and green.
PURPLE
 Violetis described as one of
the spectral components of
white light and is associated
with wavelengths of 380–420
nm .
 As a combination of red and
blue colors , purple hues in
food products can be
obtained by mixes of
pigments.
BLUE
 Although not necessarily
uncommon in nature, blue
colors are difficult to
reproduce in foods and
beverages.
 Blue color expression by
anthocyanins typically
requires a pH increase,
copigmentation, and metal
chelation.
GREEN
 Chlorophyll is the
most widely
distributed pigment
in nature and is
found in many
sources, including
plants, algae, and
bacteria.
OTHER COLORS

 This is often observed as a unique compound


specific wavelength of light that is absorbed
most intensely by the compound.
 Other pigments responsible for the appearance
of white, black, or brown colors resulting in
absorbance or reflectance of a wide range of
wavelengths of light.
CONCLUSION
o In order to reproduce these colors in foods,
inspiration should be taken from nature as to
how to create the right conditions for the colors
to be expressed and remain stable long
enough for products to remain appealing to the
consumer.
THANK YOU
REFERENCE
 Vegetable-based dye-sensitized solar cells - Chemical
Society Reviews (RSC Publishing)pubs.rsc.org
 Manual_Food_Additives_25_05_2016.pdfold.fssai.gov.in
 Function of colours in food and colours permitted by FSSAI
in foods - Food Safety Helplinefoodsafetyhelpline.com
 Food colours | European Food Safety
Authoritywww.efsa.europa.eu
 Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources |
Request PDFwww.researchgate.net
 use of natural colorants source and uses
 animal food colorants - Google Searchwww.google.co.in

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