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Particle Wood

Manufacture
GROUP 6:
Particle Board
A composition board
made up of any particles
of wood coated with
resin binder or glue and
form under heat
pressure.
Types of Particle Boards
1. Flakes/ Splinter Board- consist of small, thin flakes
or splinters.
2. Waferboard- made of large flakes. It is suitable for
exterior application/
3. Oriented strandboard (OSB)- made of long,
narrow strand capable of directional arrangement in
three layers during spreading.
Process of Particle Board
Manufacture
1. Particle preparation- raw materials are assembled outdoors or in
large silos. They are classified according to size, species, density and
possibility of moisture content. Large materials are reduced to chips,
flakes, wafers or strands using equipment such as chipper or hacker,
ring or drum flaker, turboflaker or mill.
2. Drying- the materials are dried to a moisture content of about 3-
6% based in oven-fry weight.
3. Particle classification- done after drying because wet particles
tend to stick together. Variation of screen and air-classifiers can be
used.
Process of Particle Board
Manufacture
4. Gluing- this process bonds the glue mix with the dried particles. The catalyst,
wax emulsion and other specialized additives also fire retardants are added
either separately or mixed with the rosin.
5. Forming- glued particles are distributed on metal plates with volumetric
control (spreader rolls, belts and weight control by scales) to keep mat size
uniform.
6. Hot pressing- it consolidates mats into panels by application of heat and
pressure. The final board thickness is controlled by a gauge or distance bars
(stops).
7. Finishing- boards are cooled after pressing then trimmed to final dimension
after sanding.
Fiberboard
Manufacture
Fiberboard
-A material made from woodchips or shavings, which are compressed and bonded with resin and
formed into stiff sheets and are commonly used in building and furniture making.

Benefits:
Sound proofing/deadening;
Structural sheathing;
Low-slope roofing;
Sound deadening flooring underlayment
Other uses:
1. Paperboard- a thick paper based material. Thicker than paper
(usually over 0.25mm / 0.010in)
2. Corrugated Fiberboard- a paper-based material consisting of a
fluted corrugated sheet and one/two flat linerboards. Used to make
cartons (boxes)
3. Wood Fibers- are cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees
and used to make paper. Wood fiber can also be recycled from used
paper materials.
Process of Fiberboard Manufacture
1. Raw material preparation- logs are bucked and debarked to further
processing.
2. Pulping
◦ a. Mechanical pulping- the pulp is produced through fast draining.
◦ b. Thermo-mechanical pulping- the steamed chips are fiberized in disc refiners under
steam or atmospheric pressure. Asplunddefibrator method is a typical example.
◦ c. Chemo-mechanical pulping- some raw materials require a mild chemical cook
before refining in a disc mill. Commonly used chemicals are neutral sulfite, sodium
hydroxide or lime liquor.
◦ d. Mosonite pulping (Explosion process)- wood chips are steamed at high temp and
high pressure vessel and then expelled. The sudden release of pressure turns the chips
into fibrous mass.
Process of Fiberboard Manufacture
3. Refining- the process of fibrillate, hydrate and brush the stock to obtain
higher bending area between individual fibers.
4. Sheet formation
oa. Wet felting- used to set-process plants for uncut insulation and hardboard
manufacture.
ob. Air felting- fibers are dried then brought to the air felting station where each
of several hoppers puts a layer of fibers to the conveyor to form the sheet.
5. Pressing- boards are pressed by a pair of rollers or by a cold press.
Process of Fiberboard Manufacture
6. Drying- pressed sheets are usually dried in a roller dryer or in a hydraulic hot press at low
temperature
7. Other operations
oa. Hot treatment- to improve strength, increase resistance to water absorption and lesser
thickness swelling
ob. Oil tempering- board is impregnated with drying oils (linseed or Tung oil) and heater at 160-
170 degrees for several hours to increase strength, water resistance, weathering and abrasion
oc. Humidification- used to stabilized dimension and prevent warping
od. other treatment- painted covered with preservative and fire retardant
oe. trimming- sawn to desired sizes
General Classification of Fiberboards
A. Particle board- an engineered wood product
manufactured from chips, sawmill shavings, etc which is
pressed and extruded.
B. Medium-density fiberboard (MDF)- an engineered wood
product formed by breaking down hardwood or softwood
residuals into wood fibers and forming panels by applying
high temperature and pressure.
Classification of Fiberboards
1. Non-compressed or insulation board
a. semi-rigid insulation board- use as heat insulator
b. rigid insulation board- interior paneling, siding., framing and outside finish
c. wallboard- interior type rigid insulation board
2. Compressed fiberboard
a. Medium hardboard- suitable and advantageous where its weight is lower
than that od hardboard. It has lower strength and density.
b. Hardboard- hot pressed fiberboard of high density, >80g/cc
c. Special densified hardboard- made of substantial amount of resins to
stabilize the product
Classification of Fiberboards
Classification as Surface finish
A. Smooth-one-side (S1S)
B. Smooth-two-side (S2S)
Classification as Texture or Design
A. Smooth surface
B. Embossed surface
C. Grooved surface
D. Perforated surface
Modified Wood
Wood processed into semi finished
components and assembled to form
different wood articles.
Types of Modified Woods
1. Impreg – a modified wood which is treated with a
thermosetting fiber penetrating resin that is cured
without compression.
2. Compreg- a modified wood which is treated with a
thermosetting fiber penetrating resin that is cured with
compression.
3. Laminated wood- a wood products consisting of boards
called laminae that are bounded together with their grin
directions parallel to each other.
Pulp and Paper Manufacture
Paper- all kinds of matted felted sheets of fibers formed on
a fine wire screen frost water suspension
Pulp- it is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by
chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibers from
wood, fiber crops or waste paper. Wood provides 90% of
the basis of pulp production, while about 10% originates
from annual plants.
Steps in Pulp and Paper Making Process
1. Pulping to separate and clean the fibers;
2. Beating and refining the fibers;
3. Diluting to form a thin fiber slurry, suspended in solution;
4. Forming a web of fibers on a thin screen;
5. Pressing the web to increase the density of the material;
6. Drying to remove the remaining moisture
7. Finishing to provide a suitable surface for the intended end use.
Funtions of the Pulp and Paper Mill
1. Raw material preparation (debarking and chipping)
2. Mechanical and/or chemical separation of the wood
fibers [(grinding, refining or digestion (cooking)] to
dissolve the lignin and extractives;
3. Removal of coloring agents (primarily residual lignin) by
beaching;
4. Paper formation and manufacture.
Production Process
The production process can be divided into 7 sub-processes:
raw materials processes;
wood-yard;
fibre line;
chemical recovery;
bleaching;
paper production;
products and recycling.
Simplified flow diagram of Integrated Mil
Pulping Process
Pulping aims to separate cellulose fibers from the wood
structure.
Possible types of pulp production are:
◦Kraft (68%)
◦mechanical (22%)
◦semi-chemical (4%)
◦sulphite (4%)
◦dissolving (2%).
Kraft Pulping
Sulfate or Kraft pulping was invented in Germany in 1884
and remains the dominating technology today.

Advantages:
◦higher pulp strength
◦wider variety of wood species may be used
◦more effective at removing impurities like resins.
Disadvantage:
◦the pulp yield is low, less than 50%.
The Modern Paper Making Process
Five Methods of Pulping
1) Mechanical Pulping
2) Chemimechanical
3) Thermomechanical
4) Chemimechanical and Thermomechanical Pulping
(CTMP)
5) Chemical Pulping
The Modern Paper Making Process
The chemical method is the most popular because it
produces a higher quality paper than mechanical pulping

The most popular method of pulp production is the Kraft


process, producing nearly 85% of all pulp in the United
States

This will be the focus of the pulping description


The Modern Paper Making Process

Wood Yard
The Modern Paper Making Process

Pulp Digester
The Modern Paper Making Process

Pulp washers
The Modern Paper Making Process

Bleach Plant
Pulping
The problem

Wood (this is what we have) Fibers (this is what we want)


Types of Pulping
Two main ways to liberate fibers
◦Mechanically
◦Chemically
There are also hybrids of these two
methods
◦Chemimechanical
◦Semi-chemical
Popularity of Pulping Technologies% US pulp production

• Mechanical 20%
• Chemical 70%
• Hybrids 10%

The rest of the world is pretty similar


Mechanical Pulping
• Uses mechanical energy with little or no
chemicals
• Two main processes
– Grinding: logs are forced against a revolving
abrasive stone
Stone groundwood process (SGW)
– Refining: wood chips are fed between two metal
discs – one of them rotating
Thermomechanical pulp (TMP)
Mechanical Pulping Overview
Stone Groundwood: Equipment
Stone Groundwood uses logs.

Not used at all in the Pacific Northwest


because we get almost all our wood as
leftovers from saw mills as chips.

There are a variety of different designs


of this equipment. Basically, logs are
pressed into a rotating stone. The
fibers are washed off the stone with
water. This also cools the stone.
Running this system under a slight
pressure improves the process.
Chemical Pulping
• Uses chemicals and heat to dissolve lignin
• Leave cellulose and some hemicellulose
• Major processes
–Kraft
–Soda
–Sulfite
Stock Preparation
1. Screening 5. Refining
2. Bleaching 6. Sizing
3. Beating 7. Lapping
4. Filling 8. Coloring
Modern Paper Making Process

Paper Machine
Modern Paper Making Process

Water Treatment
By-Products
Lime Kiln
A lime kiln is used to produce quicklime through the calcination of
limestone. The chemical equation for this reaction is This reaction
takes place at 900°C, but a temperature around 1000°C is usually
used to make the reaction proceed quickly.
Turpentine
Turpentine is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained
from live trees, mainly pines.
Widely used as thinning oil-based paints.
By-Products
Methanol
CH3OH
Methanol is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile,
colourless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odour very similar to,
but slightly sweeter than, that of ethanol (drinking alcohol).
At room temperature, it is a polar liquid, and is used as
an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol.
It is also used for producing biodiesel via transesterification reaction.
Future of Paper
The digital revolution has been beneficial to the
paper industry on the whole. With every new
technological advance, the amount of information
has multiplied, and the volume of paper has risen as
well.
These trends include opportunities as well as threats,
and total demand for printing and writing papers
continues to rise.
Further uses of Paper
All available recovered fibre was utilized in products such as
paperboard, tissue, and newsprint. The main contribution
of some paper-based products, like magazines, in a recycled
fibre shortage is that they are a good source of reusable
fibre.
Increasing the recovery of paper-based products like old
magazines returns high-grade fibre to the manufacturing
stream. Paper recovery is an important source of fibre, and
an effective way to take pressure off forests and landfills.