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CONSTRUCTION

OF
FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

V. VENKATA NARAYANA
COMPONENTS OF ROAD

ROAD WAY
FORMATION CARRIAGEWAY
SHOULDER
PAVEMENT
SUBGRADE
EMBANKMENT

G.L
PAVEMENTS
 Pavement : Pavement is a structure.
1. It consists of superimposed layers of
selected and processed materials.

2. It is placed on a Sub grade

3. It supports the applied traffic loads


and distributes them to the soil
foundation.
ESSENTIL REQUIEMENT OF PAVEMENTS

 1) STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE
A PAVEMENT SHOULD BE
 (i) STRONG enough to resist the stresses imposed on it
and
 (ii) THICK enough to distribute the external loads on
the earthen subgrade.
 2) FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE
A PAVEMENT SHOULD HAVE
 (i) Riding quality,
 (ii) Surface friction for skid resistance,
 (iii) Low noise and
 (iv) Good geometrics.
TYPES OF PAVEMENTS

1) FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS,
2) RIGID PAVEMENTS,
3) SEMI-RIGID PAVEMENTS,
4) COMPOSITE PAVEMENTS.
5) PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS.
1) FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

1. Consists THREE Layers.


2. It has low FLEXURAL strength.
3. Transfers the traffic loads by DISPERSION.

Wearing Course
SURFACE COURSE
Binding Course

BASE COURSE

SUB-BASE COURSE

SUB GRADE (FOUNDATION)


Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
Standard Specifications
for Road and Bridge Works - 5th Revision-2014
COMPONENTS OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
SPECIFICATIONS

 FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS Essentially consists of


THREE Layers.

1) Surface Course::
i) Wearing Course ::
PC, SDBC, BC.
ii) Binding course::
BM, DBM,
2) Granular Base ::
WBM, WMM, SUBGRADE
3) Granular Sub-Base ::
UNDERSTANDING SCOPE OF PROJECT

1) Contract Drawings,
2) Contract conditions,
3) Special Conditions,
4) Specifications,
5) Special provisions,
6) Technical notes issued by
sanctioning authority,
7) The estimate of quantities.
NECESSARY RECORDS AT SITE

1) Survey and investigation report,


2) Material test results (of Earth, metal etc.)
3) Bill of Quantities,
4) Work diaries and site order book,
5) Quality controle record book,
6) Set of working drawings mounted on cloth or
Laminated.
7) Up-to-date construction programme,
8) Computers and necessary software with
internet connection.
CLEANING AND GRUBBING

1) Cleaning and grubbing should be performed in


advance of earthwork operations ( cutting/ filling).
2) Demarcate the limits of clearing and grubbing as
shown in the drawing.
3) All trees, stumps etc. falling within excavation and fill
lines should be cut to such depth below ground level
that in no case these fall within 500 mm of the
subgrade.
4) From embankment/ cut areas, remove and store top
soil for reapplication latter.
5) The out turn is measured as area in hectares.
DISMANTLING CULVERTS AND BRIDGE
AND OTHER STRUCTURES/ PAVEMENTS.

1) Remove all the structures which are in place but


interfere with the new construction or not suitable
to remain in place should be moved.
2) Salvage and dispose the resulting materials.
3) Backfill the resulting trenches and pits and
compacted to the required density.
4) All materials obtained by dismantling shall be the
property of Government.
EARTH WORK - TYPES

1) EXCAVATION FOR ROADWAY


AND DRAINS,

2) EXCAVATION FOR STRUCTURES,

3) EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION,

4) PREPERATION AND SURFACE


TREATMENT OF FORMATION.
EARTH WORK-
(1) EXCAVATION FOR ROADWAY AND DRAINS

1) The limits of excavation shall be set out true to


lines, curves, slopes, grades and sections as
shown in the drawings.
2) Suitable materials available from excavation
are satisfactorily utilized.
3) Excess depth/ width excavated beyond the
specified levels/ dimensions on the drawings
shall be made good at the cost of contractor.
4) After excavation, the sides of excavated area
shall be trimmed and the area contoured to
minimize erosion and ponding allowing natural
drainage to take place.
EARTH WORK-
(1) EXCAVATION FOR ROADWAY AND DRAINS

5) Rock shall be removed and excavated to the


extent 500 mm below the formation level in full
formation width.
6) Excavation of marshes (is a type of wetland
that is subject to frequent or continuous flood)
shall begin at one end and proceed in one
direction across the entire marsh immediately
ahead of back filling.
7) If water is met within the excavation due to
springs etc. It shall be removed and the
excavation should kept dry.
8) The cut formation, which serves as subgrade
shall be prepared to receive the sub-base/
base course.
EARTH WORK-
(1) EXCAVATION FOR ROADWAY AND DRAINS

9) In rocky formation the surface irregularities shall


be corrected and the levels brought up to
specified elevation with granular base material
(WBM/ WMM).
10) Excavation for roadway shall be measured by
taking cross sections at suitable intervals in the
original position before the work starts and after
its completion and computing the volume in
cum. by the method of average.
11) The rate includes the operations setting out,
excavation and deposition with 1000 m lead,
trimming, dewatering and all labour, materials
and tolls.
EARTH WORK-
(2) EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION

This specification applies to construction of


i) Embankment,
ii) Subgrade,
iii) Earthen shoulders,
iv) Miscellaneous backfills.
The materials should be approved may be
obtained from
i) Road way and drain excavation,
ii) Borrow pits or
iii) Other source.
EARTH WORK-
(2) EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION

1) The material shall be soil, moorum, gravel or a


mixture of these and should be free from logs,
stumps, roots, rubbish which affect the stability
of embankment.
2) Expansive clay, soils having excessive sulphate
contents, material from swamps, peat, marshes
shall not be used.
3) The size of coarse material in the mixture of
earth shall not exceed (i) 75 mm for
embankments and (ii) 50 mm for subgrade.
4) The maximum particle size shall not be more
than 2/3 of the compacted layer thickness.
DENSITY REQUIREMENTS OF EMBANKMENT AND SUBGRADE
MATERIALS
Maximum laboratory dry unit
S.No Type of Work weight when tested as per
IS:2720 (Part 8)
1 Embankment up to 3 meters height, Not less than 15.20 kN/cum
not subjected to extensive flooding

2 Embankment exceeding up to 3 Not less than 16.00 kN/cum


meters height of embankment of any
height subjected to long period of
inundation

3 Subgrade and earthen shoulders/ Not less than 17.50 kN/cum


shoulders/ verges/ backfill
EARTH WORK-
(2) EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION

5) The samples from each of the identified borrow


areas shall be tested at laboratory.
6) It shall be ensured that the subgrade material
when compacted to the density requirements as
in the following table shall yield the design CBR
value of the subgrade.
7) The values of MDD and OMC of each fill material
shall be tested.
8) The Dry density- moisture content– CBR relation
ship for (i) Light compaction, (ii) Intermediate
compaction and (iii) Heavy compaction for each
of the fill material shall be obtained.
EARTH WORK-
(2) EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION

9) The limits of embankment be set out on both


sides at regular intervals as guides before
commencing the earth work
10) Top soil should be stripped and stored.
11) The original ground shall be leveled, scarified,
mixed with water and then compacted by
rolling so as to achieve dry density as shown in
table.
EARTH WORK-
(2) EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION
12) The embankment and subgrade material shall be
spread in layers of uniform thickness not exceeding
200 mm compacted thickness over entire width of
embankment by mechanical means, finished by motor
grader and compacted.
13) Moisture content should be checked and add the
water or dry the earth accordingly.
14) The compaction can be done by smooth wheeled,
vibratory, pneumatic tyred, sheep foot or pad foot
rollers.
15) Each layer of material shall be thoroughly compacted
to the densities specified in the previous table.
COMPACTION
EARTH WORK-
(2) EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION

16) Finally the road is finished by shaping and


dressing the shoulders, verge and road bed and
side slopes to conform to the alignment, levels,
cross sections and dimensions shown in the
drawings.
17) Earth embankment/ subgrade shall be measured
separately by taking cross sections at suitable
intervals in the original position before the work
starts and after its completion and computing the
volume in cu.m. by the method of average.
18) The rate includes the operations setting out,
source of supply of materials, depositing, rolling,
watering etc. complete.
EARTH WORK-
(2) EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION
SUBGRADE

 Definition ::
 It is the top 500 mm/ 300 mm of FORMATION and is
FOUNDATION to the pavement.
 It should be well compacted.
 Density ::
 The DRY DENSITY not less than 1.75 gm/cc.
 Strength ::
 The STRENGTH of subgrade is assessed in terms of CBR
( California Bearing Ratio).
 Maximum CBR = 10 % and Minimum CBR = 2 %
 The CBR should be found on remolded samples in the
lab at the weakest condition under the road after
construction.
SUBGRADE

 Compaction ::
 97.0 % of Dry density achieved with heavy
compaction (MODIFIED proctor density).
 For Expressways,
 National Highways,
 State Highways,
 Major District Roads,
 Other Heavy traffickled roads.
 97.0 % of Dry density achieved with normal
compaction (STANDARD proctor density).
 Ruran roads .
28

SUB-BASE LAYER – Unbound Sub-base Layer- GRANULAR

I. FUNCTIONS :- It serves THREE Functions.


1. Protect the Subgrade from over stressing.
2. Provides platform for construction traffic.
3. Serves as drainage and filter layer.

II. MATERIALS (GSB-401 of MoRT&H) :- Crushed stone, Sand, Reclaimed


Crushed concrete, reclaimed asphalt Pavement , Crushed slag or combinations
there of

III. PROPERTIES of Granular Sub-base :-


1. Gradation as per Table 400-1 of MoRT&H.
2. AIV less than 40%.
3. Material passing 425 micron should have Liquid Limit not more than 25 and
Plasticity index not more than 6.
IV. COMPOSITION :-
1. LOWER LAYER serves as SEPARATION/ FILTER Layer -- Gradings III and IV.
2. UPPER LAYER serves as Drainage Layer -- Gradings V and VI.
29

SUB-BASE LAYER – Unbound Sub-base Layer- GRANULAR


GRANULAR SUB-BASES

1. Materials ::
1. Natural sand, moorum, gravel, crushed stone, or
combination there of depending up on the grading
required.
2. Physical requirements ::
1. 10 percent fines > 50 kN
2. Water absorption value of Coarse Aggregate < 2.0 %
3. Preparation of subgrade ::
1. The subgrade sprinkled with water and rolled with two
passes of 80 -100 kN smooth wheeled roller.
4. Spreading ::
1. Mixing mechanically for major works or manually for minor
job by mix-in-place method,
2. Spreading with motor grader
3. Checking the Moisture content and add water or dry the
sample as so,
GRANULAR SUB-BASES

5. Compacting ::
1. With smooth wheeled roller or Vibratory roller up to 100 mm
compacted thickness
2. With only Vibratory Roller 100 mm to 225 mm compacted
thickness.
3. Compacted thickness of any layer should not exceed 225 mm.
4. Rolling should start from lower edge and proceed towards UPPER
edge.
5. Rolling shall be continued till the density achieved is at least 98 %
of MDD.
6. Measurement for Payment ::
1. GSB shall be measured as finished work in position in cubic meters.
7. Rate ::
1. All operations necessary like arrangement for traffic,
2. Furnishing all materials necessary,
3. All labour, tools and plants
4. Carrying out the required QUALITY CONTROLE tests.
GRANULAR BASE COURSE

 MATERIAL :: The unbound granular base


comprises of any one of the following.
 WMM – Wet Mix Macadam or.
 WBM – Water Bound Macadam
 THICKNESS ::
 WMM
 Traffic up to 2 msa Min = 225 mm.
 Traffic exceeding 2 msa Min = 250 mm.
 WBM
 Traffic up to 2 msa Min = 225 mm
 Traffic exceeding 2 msa Min = 300 mm
WET MIX MACADAM
1) This work consists of laying and compacting
crushed, graded aggregate and granular material
premixed with water to a dense mass on prepared
subgrade/ sub-base/ base.
2) The material laid one or more layers as necessary
to lines and grades and cross sections as shown
in the approved drawings.
3) The thickness of single compacted WMM layer
shall be not less than 75 mm.
4) The maximum thickness of compacted layer is
increased to 200 mm when vibratory roller is used.
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENT FOR COARSE
AGGREGATE FOR WET MIX MACADAN
Code No. for
Property Test Specification
test
Particle Shape Flakiness and Elongation index Max 30 % IS:2386 Part I

Strength Los Angeles Abrassion Max 40 % IS:2386 Part 4

Aggregate Impact Value Max 30 % IS:2386 Part 4


GRADING REQUIREMENT OF AGGREGATE
FOR WET MIX MACADAM
I.S. Sieve Cumulative % by weight of
S. No Designation total Aggregate Passing
1 (mm)
53 100
2 45 95 100
3 26.5 -- --
4 22.4 60 80
5 11.2 40 60
6 4.75 25 40
7 2.36 15 30
8 0.6 8 22
9 0.075 0 8
WET MIX MACADAM
lower limit UPPER LIMIT

100

80
% Passing by Mass

60

40

20

0
0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000 100.000
IS Sieve Designation
WET MIX MACADAM
2) Materials ::
1) Coarse aggregate conforming to Physical
requirements as shown in the previous table.
2) Water absorption value should be less than 2.0 %.
3) Grading requirement ::
1) The aggregate shall conform to the grading given in
above table.
2) The Materials finer than 425 micron shall have a
plasticity Index not exceeding 6.

4) Preparation of subgrade ::
1) The sub grade/ sub base is prepared to specified
lines and cross fall, ruts are made up.
2) Any soft yielding places should be corrected.
3) Irregularities are made up.
WET MIX MACADAM

5) Preparation of Mix ::
1) WMM shall be prepared in approved mixing plant, Pug
mill or pan type mixer of concrete batching plant having
a provision for controlled addition of water.
2) For small jobs, mixing can be done in concrete mixers.
6) Spreading mix ::
1) WMM mix spread either paver finisher or motor grader.
2) Manual method may be allowed where mechanical
method is not possible.
3) Depth blocks are used to test the layer thickness.
7) Compaction ::
1) WMM mix shall be uniformly compacted with smooth
wheeled roller up to 75 mm or Vibratory roller 75 mm
to 200 mm compacted thickness.
2) The speed of roller shall be less than 5.0 kmph.
WET MIX MACADAM
7) Compaction ::
3) The rolling should start from lower edge and progress
gradually towards upper edge
4) Rolling should not be done when the subgrade is soft or
yielding or when it causes wave-like motion.
5) Rolling shall be continued till the density achieved is at least
98 per cent of MDD
8) Measurement for Payment ::
1) WMM shall be measured as finished work in position
in cubic meters.
9) Rate ::
1) All operations necessary like arrangement for traffic,
2) Furnishing all materials necessary,
3) All labour, tools and plants
4) Carrying out the required QUALITY CONTROLE
tests
WATER BOUND MACADAM
1) Based on GRADATION 3 types
1) Grading 1 – Size range 90 mm to 45 mm
2) Grading 2 – Size range 63 mm to 45 mm
3) Grading 3 – Size range 53 mm to 22.4
mm
2) Materials
1) Coarse Aggregate,
2) Screenings,
3) Binding material.
WBM - GRADING REQUIREMENTS OF COARSE GRADED AGGREGATE
I.S. Sieve Percent by weight
S. No Size range
Designation (mm) passing the IS sieve
1 9 0 mm t o 4 5 mm 1 2 5 .0 0 100
9 0 .0 0 9 0 -1 0 0
6 3 .0 0 2 5 -6 0
4 5 .0 0 0 -1 5
2 2 .4 0 0 -5

2 6 0 mm t o 4 5 mm 9 0 .0 0 100
6 3 .0 0 9 0 -1 0 0
5 3 .0 0 2 5 -7 5
4 5 .0 0 0 -1 5
2 2 .4 0 0 -5

3 5 3 mm t o 2 2 .4 mm 6 3 .0 0 100
5 3 .0 0 9 0 -1 0 0
4 5 .0 0 6 5 -9 0
2 2 .4 0 0 -1 0
1 1 .2 0 0 0 -5
WBM - GRADING FOR SCREENINGS
Grading I.S. Sieve Percent by weight
Size of Screnings
Classification Designation passing the IS sieve
A 1 3 .2 mm 1 3 .2 0 100
1 1 .2 0 9 5 -1 0 0
5 .6 0 1 5 -3 5
0 .1 8 0 0 -1 0

B 1 1 .2 mm 1 1 .2 0 100
5 .6 0 9 0 -1 0 0
0 .1 8 0 2 5 -7 5
4 5 .0 0 0 -1 5
APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES OF COARSE AGGREGATES AND SCREENINGS
REQUIRED FOR 100/75 MM COMPACTED THICKNESS OF WATER BOUND
MACADAM (WBM) SUB-BASE COURSE FOR 10 SQM AREA.
Screenings
Crushable Type such as
Size Stone Screenings
Compacte Loose Mooram of Gravel
Classific Range
thickness Qty For, WBM For, WBM
ation (mm to Grading Grading
(mm) (cum) Sub-base/ Sub-base/
mm) Classificati Classification
base course base course
on & Size & Size
(Loose Qty.) (Loose Qty.)
Grading 1 90 -45 100 1.21- Type A 0.27 to 0.30 Not 0.30 to 0.32
1.43 13.2 mm cum uniform cum
Grading 2 63-45 75 0.91- Type A 0.12 to 0.15 -do- 0.22 to 0.24
1.07 13.2 mm cum cum
-do- -do- -do- -do- Type B 0.20 to 0.22 -do- -do
11.2 mm cum
Grading 3 53 - 22.4 75 -do- -do- 0.18 to 0.21 -do- -do-
cum
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENT FOR COARSE
AGGREGATE FOR WATER BOUND MACADAN
Code No. for
Property Test Specification
test
Particle Shape Flakiness and Elongation index Max 30 % IS:2386 Part I

Strength Los Angeles Abrassion Max 40 % IS:2386 Part 4

Aggregate Impact Value Max 30 % IS:2386 Part 4


WATER BOUND MACADAM

1. Materials ::
1. Coarse aggregate conforming to Physical
requirements.
2. Screenings conforming to gradation as in Table,
3. Binding Material for preventing raveling and having
Plasticity Index (PI) Value less than 6 .
2. Preparation of subgrade ::
1. The sub grade/ sub base is prepared to specified lines
and cross fall, ruts are made up.
2. Any soft yielding places should be corrected.
3. Irregularities are made up.
3. Spreading ::
1. The course aggregate is spread on subgrade/ sub-
base for a compacted thickness 100 mm for Gr1 and
75 mm for Gr 2 and Gr 3.using templates.
2. Spreading may be done mechanically or manually.
WATER BOUND MACADAM
4) Compacting ::
1) Rolling with three wheeled smooth wheeled roller or vibratory
roller.
2) Rolling shall proceed from lower edge to upper edge.
3) Sprinkling of water.
5) Application of screenings ::
6) Sprinkling of water and grouting ::
7) Application of Binding material ::
8) Setting out and drying ::
9) Measurement for Payment ::
1) WBM shall be measured as finished work in position in cubic
meters.
10) Rate ::
1) All operations necessary like arrangement for traffic,
2) Furnishing all materials necessary,
3) All labour, tools and plants
4) Carrying out the required QUALITY CONTROLE tests.
PRIME COAT

1) Description :
Prime coat is an application of a single coat low viscosity
bituminous material to a porous granular surface (un treated
absorbent base) preparatory to the superimposition of
bituminous treatment or mix.
Good penetration of the Prime Coat up to 5 mm into the base
is desirable. That why Low Viscosity.

2) Use : The purpose of priming is


1)To PLUG the capillarity voids,
2)To Coat and bond loose materials on the surface,
3)To harden or toughen the surface,
4)To promote adhesion between the layer being primed
and the superimposed bituminous layer.
PRIME COAT

3) Materials :
Emulsion SS1 grade.
1) Bitumen
2) Cutback Bitumen Medium curing cutback bitumen
PRIME COAT
I. The correct quantity of primer will be the maximum amount
that can be absorbed by the surface without causing run-off of
excessive primer.
II. The Bituminous primer shall not be applied on wet surface.
III. The Surface to receive primer should be free from loose,
disintegrated and extraneous matter, free from settlement,
rutting and SHOULD be to correct grade, camber or super
elevation.
IV. The surface to receive primer should be damp before
application of primer.
V. A primed surface shall be allowed to cure for at least 24 hours
before any subsequent treatment or mix is laid.
PRIME COAT
PRIME COAT

Measurement for pavement :


Prime coat shall be measured in terms of surface
area of application in square meters.
Rate :
Payment shall be made on the basis of the
provision of prime coat at an application rate of
0.60 km per sqm
+/-
Variation with actual amount approved by the
engineer after preliminary trials.
TACK COAT
1) Description :
Tack coat is an application of a single coat low viscosity
bituminous material to an existing bituminous surface
preparatory to the superimposition of bituminous mix.

2) Use : The purpose of Tack coat is


To ensure a bond between the new construction and the
old surface.

3) Materials :
1) Bitumen Emulsion :: of Grades RS-1, RS-1h,.
2) Cutback Bitumen :: of Grades MC-30 and MC-70 or MC-
250.
3)Bitumen : VG10
TACK COAT

RATE OF APPLICATION OF TACK COAT


Quantity of liquid
bituminous
S. No Type of Surface material in kg per
sq.m. area
i) Normal bituminous surfaces 0.20 to 0.25
ii) Dry and hungry surfaces 0.25 to 0.30
iii) Granular surface treated with primer 0.25 to 0.30
iv) Non Bituminous sorface
a) Granular base ( not primed ) 0.35 to 0.40
b) Cement concrete pavement 0.30 to 0.35
BITUMINOUS SURFACINGS

 The Bituminous Surfacing consists of


 Wearing Course only or
 Binder Course + Wearing Courses

 BINDER COURSE :: commonly used Binder


courses are
 Bituminous Macadam (BM) ,
 Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM).
 BITUMINOUS MACADAM ::
 For traffic less than 5 msa .
 DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM ::
 For traffic more than 5 msa .
BITUMINOUS SURFACINGS

 WEARING COURSE :: commonly used Wearing


courses are
1. Surface Dressing (SD),
2. Open-graded premix carpet (OGPC)+Seal Coat.
3. Mix seal surfacing (MS),
4. Semi-dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC),
5. Bituminous Concrete(BC).
6. Slurry seal,
7. Fog Spray,
8. Micro- Surfacing,
9. Crack prevention courses.
BITUMINOUS SURFACINGS

 SELECTION :: The choice of appropriate type


of wearing courses depend on
 Desine traffic,
 Type of Base course,
 Type of Binder Course,
 Rainfall of the area.
 NOTE :: The thickness of
 Surface dressing,
 Open graded premix carpet and
 Mixseal surfacing
Will not be counted in designing the total thickness of
pavement.
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS MACADAM

1) Materials ::
1) Aggregate (Coarse, Fine, Filler) conforming to
relevant Physical
2) Bitumen (Viscosity grade or Modified).
2) Grading requirement ::
1) The aggregate shall conform to the grading given
in the table.
3) Preparation of surface ::
1) The surface should be firm and clean, free of
potholes, the widths, lengths, camber and
gradients as per drawings.
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS MACADAM
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS MACADAM
MANUFACTURING AND ROLLING TEMPERATURES

Bitumen Aggregate Mixed


Bitumen Rolling Laying
Mixing Mixing Material O O
Penetration ( C) ( C)
(OC) (OC) ( OC)

170 100 130


35 160-170 160-175 Maximim Minimum Minimum
165 90 125
65 150-165 150-170 Maximim Minimum Minimum
155 80 130
90 140-160 140-165 Maximim Minimum Minimum
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS MACADAM

4) Preparation of Mix ::
1. The premixed Bituminous material shall be
prepared in Hot Mix Plant (HMP)/ BATCH MIX
PLANT to yield a mix of proper and uniform with
thoroughly coated aggregate.
5) Transporting ::
1. The Bituminous material shall be transported in
vehicles.
6) Spreading mix ::
1. The Bituminous material shall be spread, leveled
and tamped by self-propelled paving machine,
duly supplying the continuously to the paver.
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS MACADAM

7) Compaction ::
1) The Bituminous material shall be laid and compacted
in layers which enable the specified thickness, surface
level, regularity requirement and compaction to be
achieved.
8) Measurement for Payment ::
1) Bituminous Macadam, Dense Bituminous Macadam,
Bituminous concrete and Semi-Dense Bituminous
concrete ---- Cubic Meters –cum or Metric tonne - MT.
2) Surface dressing, Open graded pre-mix surfacing and
Mixed seal surfacing ----- Square meters- sqm
DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM
DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM
DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM
DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE

1) Materials ::
1) Aggregate (Coarse, Fine, Filler) conforming to
relevant Physical Properties Table.
2) Bitumen (Penetration grade or Modified).
2) Grading requirement ::
1) The aggregate shall conform to the grading given in
the tables
3) Preparation of surface ::
1) The surface should be firm and clean, free of
potholes, the widths, lengths, camber and gradients
as per drawings.
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE

4) Preparation of Mix ::
1. The premixed Bituminous material shall be prepared
in Hot Mix Plant (HMP) to yield a mix of proper and
uniform with thoroughly coated aggregate.
5) Transporting ::
1. The Bituminous material shall be transported in
vehicles.
6) Spreading mix ::
1. The Bituminous material shall be spread, leveled
and tamped by self-propelled paving machine, duly
supplying the continuously to the paver.
CONSTRUCTION OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE

7) Compaction ::
1) The Bituminous material shall be laid and
compacted in layers which enable the specified
thickness, surface level, regularity requirement and
compaction to be achieved.
8) Measurement for Payment ::
1) Bituminous Macadam, Dense Bituminous
Macadam, Bituminous concrete and Semi-Dense
Bituminous concrete ---- Cubic Meters –cum or
Metric tonne - MT.
2) Surface dressing, Open graded pre-mix surfacing
and Mixed seal surfacing ----- Square meters- sqm
GRADING REQUIREMENTS FOR CHIPS FOR
SURFACE DRESSING
IS Sieve Cumulative per cent by weight of total aggregate passing for
Designation the following nominal sizes (mm )
(mm) 19 13 10 6
26.5 100 -- -- --
19 79-100 100 -- --
13.2 59-79 85-100 100 --
9.5 52-72 0-40 85-100 100
6.30 35-55 0-7 0-35 85-100
4.75 35-55 -- 0-10 --
3.35 28-44 -- -- 0-35
2.36 28-44 0-2 0-2 0-10
0.60 20-34 -- -- 0-2
0.075 2-8 0-1.5 0-1.5 0-1.5
Minimum 65 % by Passing 19 mm, Passing 13.2 mm, Passing 9.5 mm, Passing 6.3 mm,
weight of Aggregate retained 13.2 mm retained 9.5 mm retained 6.3 mm retained 3.35 mm
QUANTITIES OF AGGREGATES FOR 10 SQM AREA

(A) Premix carpet


(a) Coarse aggregate nominal Stone size 13.2mm 0.18 cum
(passing 22.4mm sieve and retained 11.2 mm sieve

(b) Coarse aggregate nominal Stone size 11.2mm 0.09 cum


(passing 13.2mm sieve and retained 5.6 mm sieve
(B) For seal coat
(a) For Liquid seal coat (Type A seal coat) 0.09 cum
(b) For Premix seal coat (Type B seal coat ) 0.06 cum

QUANTITIES OF EMULSION BINDER FOR 10.0 SQM AREA

(A) Premix carpet 20 to 23 kg


(B) For seal coat
(a) For Liquid seal coat (Type A seal coat) 12 to 23 kg
(b) For Premix seal coat (Type B seal coat ) 10 to 12 kg
AGGREGATE GRADATION FOR MIXED SEAL SURFACING

Cumulative per cent by weight


IS Sieve of total aggregate passing
Designation (mm)
Type A Type B
13.2 - 100
11.2 100 88-100
5.6 52-88 31-52
2.8 14-38 5-25
0.09 0-5 0-5
COMPOSITION OF SEMI DENSE BITUMINOUS CONCRETE
PAVEMENT LAYERS
Mix designation Grading I Grading 2
Nominal aggregate size 13 mm 10 mm
Layer thickness 35 - 40 mm 25 -30 mm
IS Sieve (mm) Cumulative % by weight of total aggregate
45.000
37.500 100
26.500 90-100
19.000 100 71-95
13.200 90-100 100
9.500 70-90 90-100
4.750 35-51 35-51
2.360 24-39 24-39
1.180 15-30 15-30
0.600 -- --
0.300 9-19 9-19
0.150 -- --
0.075 3-8 3-8
Bituminous content % by weight of Min 4.5 Min 5.0
total mixture
Bitumen grade 65 65
Types of Plants
BATCH DRUM MIXER
Different types of trucks are
Used

80
Self Propelled Paving Machine

HMA Flow

82
Flexible Pavement –
Construction
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
DAMAGES IN BITUMINOUS SURFACES
References

 IRC : 37-2001 Guidelines for the desing of


Flexible Pavements.

 MORT&H Specifications for Road and Bridge


works ( Fourth Revision).

 Principles and practices of Highway Engineering.


 L.R. Kadiyali.

 Some sites in Internet.


THANK YOU

V. VENKATA NARAYANA