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Some skills are best assessed using pencil and
paper, but other skills are difficult to assess using
only pencil and paper. Particularly those involving
independent judgement, Critical thinking, and
decision making.
Performance-based Assessment
These are assessment activities that directly
assess student’s understanding and proficiency.
These assessments allow students to construct a
response, create a product, or perform a
demonstration to show what they understand
and can do.
• Authentic assessment is another phrase you
might encounter when reading about alternative
assessments. What makes assessment
Test for Authenticity

“How likely is it that students will

encounter a task like this outside of the
Developing Performance-Based Assessment
1. Have a clear purpose that identifies the
decision to be made based on the performance
Clear Purpose- objective that require students
to create
Purposes of Performance assessments
a. Grading students
b. Constructing portfolios of student work
c. Diagnosing student learning
d. Helping students recognize the important steps in a
performance or product
e. Provide concrete examples of student work for
parent conferences
2. Deciding the assessment contexts
Deciding the assessment contexts.
• What does the “doing of mathematics, history, science, art,
writing, and so forth” look and feel like to professionals who
make their living working in those fields in the real world?
• What are the projects and tasks performed by those
professionals that can be adapted to school instruction?
• What are the roles—or habits of mind—that those
professionals acquire that learners can re-create in the
3. Identify observable aspects of the student’s
performance or product that can be judged
4. Provide appropriate setting for eliciting
and judging the performance or product
5. Provide a judgement or score to describe
Identifying performance Criteria
Performance Criteria are the specific behaviors a
student should display when properly carrying out a
performance or creating a product.

Why is this important in PBA?

Example of Performance Criteria
a. Content
b. Organizations
c. Graphics
d. Elocution
e. Eye contact
Performance Criteria for a well-organize paragraph
1. Indents first sentence
2. Topic sentence sets main idea of paragraph
3. Following sentences support main idea
4. Sentences arranged in logical order
5. Uses age-appropriate vocabulary
6. Writes in complete sentences
7. Capitalizes proper nouns and first word in the sentences
Cautions in Writing performance Criteria

1. It is important to understand that performance

criteria is not unique. There are several ways to
describe the characteristics of a well-written
2. It is possible to break down most school
performances and products into many very
narrow criteria.
3. The process of identifying is an ongoing one
that is rarely completed after the first attempt.
Developing Observable Performance Criteria
1. Select the performance or product to be assessed and
either perform it yourself or imagine yourself performing it.
2. List the important aspects of the performance or product.
3. Try to limit the number or performance criteria, so they all
can be observed during a student’s performance.
4. If possible, have groups of teachers think through the
important criteria included in as task.
5. Express performance criteria in terms of observable
student behaviors or product characteristics.
6. Do not use ambiguous words that cloud the meaning
of the performance criteria.
7. Arrange performance criteria in the order in which
they are likely to be observed.
8. Check for existing performance criteria before
defining your own.
Develop a score to describe the performance
• Anecdotal Records
•Checklist is a written list of performance
criteria. As a performance is observed or a
product is judged, the scorer determines
whether the performance or the product
meets each performance criterion included
in the checklist.
Rating Scale is scoring tool that focuses
on the quality of the product, process, or
performance. It assigns numbers to
categories representing different degrees
of performance.
A rubric is a rating scale in which a verbal
summary of each rating point is written.
In analytic rubrics, there are rating scale
associated with multiple criteria.
In holistic rubrics, there is a single rating
scale associated with a single, quite
general criterion.
Analytic Scoring
Scoring Rubrics
• How to score using a Rubric?
•Compare and contrast some of the reasons
given to explain why we give conventional tests
with those reasons given to explain why we
give performance assessments.
•Be sure to identify at least 3 reasons, although
spelling, punctuation, and grammar will not be
considered in grading, do your best to consider
them in your writing. Limit your answer to one-
half sheet of paper.
A portfolio is an application of product
assessment by collecting representative samples
of student work systematically collected over
Rationale for the Portfolio
Portfolio's greatest potential is for showing teachers,
parents, and learners a richer array of what students
know and can do than paper-and-pencil tests, and
other “snapshot” assessment.
- Communicate to parents and other teachers the level
of achievement that a learner has reached.
- Are not alternative to paper and pencil tests,
essay tests, or performance tests.
- Achievement and growth in an authentic
context, portfolios are a tool to consider.
If we want to assess Factual Knowledge base then
Objective-type of test are required
If we are interested in a snapshot assessment of
how well a learner uses a cognitive strategy then
performance-based assessment are required.
Challenges to the validity of portfolio
1. Representativeness
2. Rubrics
3. Relevance
Developing portfolio Assessments
1. Deciding on the Purpose for a portfolio
Classroom-level purposes include
a. Monitoring student progress
b. Communicating what has been learned to parents
c. Passing on information to subsequent teachers
d. Evaluating how well something was taught
e. Showing off what has been accomplish
2. Identifying Cognitive Skills and disposition
3. Deciding who will plan the portfolio
4. Deciding which products to put in the Portfolio
and how many samples of each product
5. Developing the Rubric
How far are we?
Assessment refer to the process of gathering information in
order to make an informed decision.
So far we discussed the process of gathering information
1. Objective-type of test (Cognitive Domain)
2. Performance-based assessment (Dominated by
Psychomotor Domain, partly Cognitive and Affective)
3. What is the equivalent assessment tool for Affective
The affective Taxonomy describes objectives that
reflect underlying emotions, feelings, values, rather
than cognitive or thought complexity, has been
developed by Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia (1999)
Levels of the Taxonomy
1. Receiving (Attending)
2. Responding
3. Valuing
4. Organization
5. Characterization by a value or Complex System

• student have at least an awareness of some stimulus

• a willingness at least to listen or attend to the stimulus
must be present (i.e., tolerance).
• attend selectively to various aspects of the context
within which the stimulus exists, differentiating those
that are relevant to the stimulus from those that are
• a student will at least acquiesce to a teacher’s or
other’s request, although given a choice, the student
might choose some other activity
• student’s willingness to engage in an activity, even
when allowed a choice.
• satisfaction after engaging in a response
• acceptance of a belief, idea, attitude, and the like. The
individual may not be willing to publicly defend the idea but
has internalized it.
• When a student actively pursues an idea, he or she is
demonstrating a preference for it, the next sublevel of
• after becoming convinced of the validity of an idea, a
student expresses commitment to the idea. At this point the
student demonstrates conviction by pursuing the goal or
idea diligently.

• student conceptualize a value by analyzing

interrelationships and drawing generalizations that
reflect the valued idea.
• values that have been conceptualized are subject to
the organization of a value system. That is, the valued
ideas are arranged to foster their consistency and
compatibility with one another.
Characterization by a Value or Value Complex

• The first sublevel is characterized by a generalized set .

This means the individual is predisposed to perceive,
process, and react to a situation in accordance with an
internalized value system.
• characterization, is evident in the consistency
between an individual’s thoughts and behaviors. Such
individuals would never say “Do as I say, not as I do.”
Assessing Student Classroom Behavior and
The primary method for assessing classroom
behavior is Observation.
Type of Observations in Class
1. Informal or unstructured
2. Formal or structured
Why do some teachers are better classroom
managers than others?
Kounin (1970) came up with a partial answer
to this questions. He called it Withitness.
Focus our observations on

1. Reading the nonverbal behavior and vocal cues

2. Understanding the message link to facial, body
language, and vocal cues
3. “steering group”
Sources of Errors when doing observations
1. Primacy effects
Teachers initial impressions have a distorting effect on
subsequent observations
2. Halo or Pitchfork Effect
Expectations based on previous students attitude, behavior, or
3. Logical Generalization error
Teachers make the assumption that what he or she observes
in one situation is likely to apply in other situations
4. Failure to acknowledge self
Teachers do not take into account the influence they have on
the setting or situation and the resultant student behavior.
5. Observer bias
Preconceived biases and stereotypes distort the meanings of
what is observed.
6. Student faking
Teachers fail to notice that students appear to behave in
accordance with teacher expectations.
Rubric for class participation
Rating scale for students behavior
Students Perspectives
Colleague Perspectives
Develop a Formal Model
Formal Observation
The role of Affective Assessment
Understanding the lack of effort
Affective Instrument for Potential Causes of
Misbehavior and Lack of Effort