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Step 6 Choice of project

A- From a cost point of view, the Department of Transportation would select Alterna􀆟 ve 3,
since it results in travel time and safety improvements at the lowest cost.
B- If addi􀆟 onal funds are available, then Altera􀆟 ve 1 or 4 would be considered.
C- Since Alterna􀆟 ve 1 is lower in cost than Alterna􀆟 ve 4 and is equal or better than
3 for each criterion related to community impacts.
D- In the selection process, each alternative would be reviewed.
Step 7 Specifications and construction
Once the project has been chosen, a detailed design phase is begun, in which each of the
components of the facility is specified.
The time horizons which the urban transportation planning concern:
1- Short - term emphasis intended to select projects that can be implemented within a one-
three-year period
e.g./ traffic signal timing to improve flow, car and van pooling to reduce congestion, park-
fringe parking lots to increase transit ridership, and transit improvements.
2- The second time horizon deals with the long-range transportation needs of an area and
identifies the projects to be constructed over a 20-year period
e.g./ adding new highway elements, additional bus lines or freeway lanes, rapid transit
systems and
extensions, or access roads to airports or shopping malls.
Forecasting travel:
(1) Data collection (or inventories)
(2) Analysis of existing conditions and calibration of forecasting techniques
(3) Forecast of future travel demand
(4) Analysis of the results
Defining the Study Area:
Prior to collecting and summarizing the data, it is usually necessary to delineate the study
boundaries and to further subdivide the area into Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) for data
The criteria to select zones:
1. Socioeconomic characteris􀆟 cs should be homogeneous.
2. Intra-zonal trips should be minimized.
3. Physical, poli􀆟 cal, and historical boundaries should be u􀆟 lized where possible.
4. Zones should not be created within other zones.
5. The zone system should generate and attract approximately equal trips, households,
or area. For example, labor force and employment should be similar.
6. Zones should use census tract boundaries where possible.
7. The total number of zones should not be so large as to overwhelm computer resources.
Data Collection The data include
1- Information about economic activity (employment, sales volume, income, etc.),
2- land use (type, intensity), travel characteristics (trip and traveler profile),
3- Transportation facilities (capacity, travel speed, etc.).
Calibration is concerned with establishing mathematical relationships that can be used to
estimate future travel demand. Usually, analysis of the data will reveal the effect on travel
demand of factors such as land use, socioeconomic characteristics, or transportation system
A multiple regression analysis shows the following relationship for the number of trips per
T = 0.82 + 1.3P + 2.1A
T = number of trips per household per day
P = number of persons per household
A = number of autos per household
If a par􀆟 cular TAZ contains 250 households with an average of 4 persons and 2 autos for
household, determine the average number of trips per day in that zone.
Step 1 Calculate the number of trips per household.
T = 0.82 + 1.3P + 2.1A
)2 * 2.1( + )4* 1.3( + 0.82==10.22 trips/household/day
Step 2 Determine the number of trips in the entire zone.
Total trips in TAZ = 250 (10.22) =2,555 trips/day
Other mathematical formulas establish the relationships for trip length, percentage of trips
by auto or transit, or the particular travel route selected.

Travel demand:
Is the number of persons or vehicles per unit time that can be expected to travel on a given
segment of a transportation system under a set of given land-use, socioeconomic, and
environmental conditions.

Demand forecasting situations:

1- Travel demand studies for urban areas, the information gathered provided useful insight
concerning the characteristics of the trip maker, such as age, sex, income, auto ownership,
and so forth.

2- the intercity case, data are generally aggregated to a greater extent than for urban travel
forecasting, such as city population, average city income, and travel time or travel cost
between city pairs.