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PARAMETRIC TEST

Dr.dr.SISWANTO, MSc

FACULTY OF MEDICINE
UNIVERSITY OF BRAWIJAYA

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PARAMETRIC TEST

Three parameters of the data must be true or are


assumed
1. The data need to be normally distributed (The
observations in each group are normally
distributed)
2. The variance of each group is equal to that of
any group (homogeneity of variances)
3. The data need to be continuous (interval/ratio)
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Parametric tests are more robust and
for the most part require less data to
make a stronger conclusion than
nonparametric tests.

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Independent and dependent t-test

 The sample t-test may be either independent


(unpaired) or dependent (paired).
 If the two samples are independent, there is no
connection between any subject in group 1
and any subject in group 2.
Independent and dependent t-test

 Paired t-test. In paired t-test, there is a connection


between scores in one group and scores in the other.
 In t-test the scale of independent variable is nominal,
and the scale of dependent variable is numeric
 2-sample t-test is used to establish whether a
difference occurs between the means of 2 similar data
sets. The t-test uses the mean, standard deviation, and
number of samples to calculate the test statistic.
Experimental effect on systolic
blood pressure level (mmHg)

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Anova

Anova is a logical extension of the t


test when we have data from three
or more independent group
Weight gain (oz) of Rats Fed four different
Brands of cereal

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Repeated Measures Anova

One - way repeated measures ANOVA. Each


subject is exposed to 3 or more conditions, or
measured on the same continuous scale on
three or more conditions/independent
variables (2 conditions = paired t - test)
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Correlation and linear regression

 Differences between correlation and regression.


The two most common methods used to describe the
relationship between two quantitative variables (x and
y) are linear correlation and linear regression.
The former is a statistic that measure the strength of a
bivariate association; the latter is a prediction
equation that estimates the value of y for any given x.
When should you use correlation
and when regression ?

Example: We are interested in studying the


relationship between the pregnancy weight of a group
of mothers to their infants birth weights.
How strong is the association between the mothers
weight and her infants birth weight?
The method of choice is to calculate a correlation
coefficient as a measure of the strength of association
between these two variables.
Correlation coefficient , r, is a measure of the
strength of the linear association between two
variables (ratio/interval) x and y.

The correlation coefficient is often referred to as


Pearson’s product-moment r

The test statistic is from -1 to 1, with -1 being a


perfect negative correlation and 1 a perfect positive
correlation.

A positive correlation implies a direct relationship


between the variables, and a negative correlation
implies an inverse relationship
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When should you use correlation
and when regression ?

 If you ask : what would be an infants predicted birth


weight for a mother possessing a known pre
pregnancy weight ?
 We use linear regression analysis
Pre pregnancy weights of mothers and birth
weights of their infants (based on sample size
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Scatter diagram of infants’ Birth weights
relative to mothers’ pre pregnancy weights

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The correlation between the VDR mRNA
expression and the cathelicidin production in
monocyte (p<0,001, Pearson 0,8) 17
APLIKASI ANALISIS REGRESI
(a) Spesifikasi Model :
(1) Identifikasi variabel Dependen dan Independen :
• Teoritis : ROA sebagai variabel Dependen, lainnya
Independen
(2) Menentukan Spesifikasi Model
• Spesifikasi model sesuai dengan mekanisme
substansi pada bidang yang dikaji (teoritis) :
Diasumsikan semua variabel berhubungan
secara linier dengan ROA
b) Pendugaan Paremater : OLS (software SPSS)
c) Pemeriksaan Asumsi : dilakukan bersamaan dengan
pendugaan parameter (perhitungan analisis regresi)
d) Interpretasi: dapat dilakukan setelah semua asumsi
terpenuhi

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PENDUGAAN PARAMETER
PENDUGAAN PARAMETER
Ekspanasi
1) EKSPLANASI. Koefisien determinasi (R2) = 0.671; artinya kontibusi
pengaruh
ITO, QR, DER dan TATO terhadap ROA sebesar 67.1 %. ATAU bila kita
melakukan prediksi ROA berdasarkan ITO, QR, DER dan TATO tingkat
akurasinya 67.1 %
Koefisien regresi parsiil t-test (sig.< 0.05) adalah ITO dan TATO, lainnya
nonsignifikan. Eksplanasi: TATO meningkat maka ROA akan meningkat.

2) PREDIKSI. Uji koefisien secara simultan F-test (sig.  , misal  = 0.05),


bilamana kita melakukan prediksi, maka hasil prediksi tersebut dapat
digeneralisasikan untuk populasi.
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Eksplanasi

(3) FAKTOR DETERMINAN. Variabel yang berpengaruh paling


kuat terhadap ROA adalah TATO, kemudian ITO.
Koefisien standardize Beta terbesar (mutlak) berarti pengaruhnya
paling kuat, tanda (positif, negatif) menunjukkan arah pengaruh

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