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# Atmaram Kayastha

Research Associate
Turbine Testing Lab
Kathmandu University
 Computational Domain
 Mesh ( Workbench)
 CFX Pre
 CFX Solution
 CFX Post
 Definition
 region in space (either 2-D or 3-D) in which the numerical equations of fluid flow are
solved
 bounded by edges (2-D) or faces (3-D) on which boundary conditions are applied.
 numerical equations are then solved in each cell of the mesh.

 Types
 Structural Domain
 2D/3D

 Fluid Domain
 2D/3D

## Fig. Francis Turbine Runner Structural Domain and Fluid Domain

Boolean Operation
 CAD Software • Boolean commands work only on solids or
 Creo/SolidWorks/Inventor/Catia regions.
etc • Union, Subtract or Intersect in order to create
the solid model

## Fig. Fluid Domain Fig. Structure Domain

 Model Accuracy
 CREO 4.0 : 0.00012

 Simplification
 Avoid minor details in CAD model
 Include only regions of interest

 All Solids
 Step File format (.stp or .step)
 Parasolid File Format
 Iges File Format (.igs or .iges)

## Fig. Snip Shot of Model Properties in Creo 4.0

 Definition
 Generated by dividing the
computational domain into tiny
cells
 Numerical equations are then
solved in each cell of the mesh
Fig. Structured Mesh
 Also called a grid.

 Types of Mesh
 Structured ( ICEM CFD)
 Unstructured (Workbench Mesh)
 Hybrid

 Element Type
 Tetrahedral Fig. Unstructured Mesh
 Hexahedral
 Named Selection
 Boundaries
 Inlet
 Outlet
 Opening
 Interfaces
 Wall
 Method
 Patch Confirming
 boundary surfaces
treated as single
surface
 Patch Independent
 Boundary surfaces
treated individually

 Mesh Sizes
 Element Size
 Maximum
 Minimum
 Growth Rate
 Boundary Layer
 layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of
a bounding surface where the effects of
viscosity are significant.
 Types specified by Reynolds Number
 Laminar Boundary Layer Flow Fig. Structured mesh/ Unstructured mesh/ Hybrid with Inflation layers
 Smooth Flow
 Turbulent Boundary layer Flow
 Contains swirls and eddies
 Inflation Layers or Prism Layers
 To capture boundary layer and flow
separation

## Fig. Types of flow Fig. Boundary layer and Flow

Separation
 Domain Setup
• Single Phase/ Multiphase

## • Working Fluid (Air/Water/Sediment)

 Continuous
 Dispersed Fluid/Solid
 Particle Transport Fluid/Solid
 Poly Dispersed Fluid
 Droplets(Phase Change)

• Mixture Model
• Homogeneous (Air/Water)
• refers to smooth variation of properties in mixture with no discontinuities or jumps.
 Heterogeneous (Water/Sediment)
 components of the mixture are not uniform or have localized regions with different properties

• Turbulence Models
• k–ε (k–epsilon)
• k–ω (k–omega)
• SST (Menter’s Shear Stress Transport)
• Reynolds stress equation model

• Buoyancy
• Upthrust force applicable in Multiphase Analysis with two or more fluid with different densities
Domain 1 Domain 3
Interface 1
 Boundary Conditions
 Inlet
MFR, Total Pressure, Static Pressure, Opening 1
Avg. Static Pressure, Velocity
Opening 2
 Outlet
 MFR, Total Pressure, Static Pressure,
Avg. Static Pressure, Velocity
 Opening
 MFR, Total Pressure, Static Pressure,
Avg. Static Pressure, Velocity Wall Outlet
 Wall
Slip/ Non Slip
Inlet Interface 2
Opening 3
 Interface Domain 2
GGI, Translational Periodic,
Rotational Periodic

 Simulating constant flow and heat • Simulating time varying flow and heat
transfer regimes
transfer
 Valid if flow and heat transfer does
not vary with time • Iterative implicit process at each time step
 Constant Boundary Conditions • Inner iterations can be carried out until
 Constant Device Behaviour flow parameters are all calculated with
values at current time step
 One snap shot describes the flow
completely • can think of Steady state solution as an
infinite transient solution to a problem
 Less computationally intensive with constant boundary conditions

##  For analysis usually used as initial • Require initial conditions

conditions
 Single Processing/ Parallel Processing
 Convergence Criteria
 Residual Type: RMS
 Residual Target 1.E-4

 Monitor Plots
 Momentum and Mass
 Turbulence
 Volume Fraction
 Wall and Boundary Scale

##  Custom Monitor Plots

 Pressure at Inlet/Outlet/Wall
 Mass Flow Rate at Inlet/Outlet.. etc

## Fig. Solution Progress/ Monitor window for CFX

 Graphical
 Streamline Plot
 Contour Plot
 Section Plane
 Volume Plot
 Animations

 Mathematical
 Function Calculator
 Mass flow rate at different
locations