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NATURE OF INQUIRY AND RESEARCH

Credits: Ma'am Annalyn


National Seminar-Workshop on Teaching
Quantitative and QUalitative Research. Ateneo De
Naga University, December 1-3, 2017
EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES
• Summarize the basic differences
between quantitative and qualitative
research
• Give examples of quantitative and
qualitative research
• Point out when to use quantitative and
qualitative research.
Basic Actions in Research
• According to MacDonald and Headlam, 2009

1.COUNT THINGS
2.TALK TO PEOPLE
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

• concerned with trying to quantify


things by asking:
–how long
–how many
–to what degree
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
-entailing the collection of numerical data
and exhibiting the view of relationship
between theory and research as
deductive, a predilection of natural
science approach, and as having an
objectivist conception of social reality.
-Bryman and Bell (2005)
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
- influenced by the empirical paradigm,
which means that it is concerned with
cause and effect of social phenomena
and uses the data based on empirical
observation and their critical
interpretation.
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

- systematic empirical
investigation of observable
phenomena via statistical,
mathematical or computational
techniques.
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

•look to quantify data and


generalize results from a sample
of the population of interest
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

•may look to measure the


incidence of various views and
opinions in a chosen sample or
aggregate results
concerned with
quality of information
attempt to:
1. gain an understanding of
the underlying reasons and
motivations for actions.
attempt to:
2. establish how people
interpret their experiences
of the world around them.
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE

AIM to count things a complete,


to explain what detailed
is observed description of
what is
observed
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Purpose Generalizability Contextualization
Prediction Interpretation
Causal Understanding
Explanations perspectives
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Tools -surveys -non- numerical
-those that data gathering
instruments
collect
numerical data
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Data Structured Unstructured
Collection
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Output Data is in the Data is in the
form of number form of words,
and statistics pictures and
objects
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Sample Many cases usually a
representing small number
the population of non-
of interest representative
cases
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Sample Randomly Respondents
selected are selected
respondents on their
experience
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Objective/ Objective- Subjective -
Subjective
seeks precise individual's
measurement interpretation
and analysis of events is
important
QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Analysis Statistical Interpretive
QUANTITATIVE

• generates statistics using large-scale


surveys research, using methods such as
questionnaires or structured interviews.
• reaches many people, but the contact is
much quicker than it is with qualitative
research
QUANTITATIVE

Examples:
1. Determining if microbead pillow are
more effective than foam pillows in
improving the sleep problems using
randomized block design
QUANTITATIVE

Examples:
2. Exploring how effective in the new policy
compared with the old policy through
survey and interviews
QUANTITATIVE

Examples:

3. Documenting effect of variation in the


level of student abilities on hte teacher-
student interactions in the classroom
through quasi-experiment
QUANTITATIVE

Examples:

4. Determining the percentage of street


children with unmet health care serviced
and their highest priority needs through
surveys
QUANTITATIVE

Examples:

5. Describing the percentage of


indigeneous wmen who seek and obtain
prenatal care and their birth outcomes
using structured interviews
QUALITATIVE
• explores attitudes, behavior and experiences
through interviews and focused group discussions
• attempts to get an in-depth opinion from
participants
• fewer respondents with longer contact time
• many different methodologies are available
(Dawson, 2002)
QUALITITATIVE

Examples:

1. Determining why some patients


complain about the microbead and foam
pillows and how did the pillows feel
through interviews
QUALITITATIVE

Examples:

2. Exploring how accepting were the


students on new school policy and what
problems or implementation ensued
through focus groups.
QUALITITATIVE

Examples:

3. Documenting how young teachers


interact with students in classes with
different student abilities using
classroom observations.
QUALITITATIVE

Examples:

4. Understanding the barriers that prevent


street children from getting needed
health care services through using
etnographic research.
QUALITITATIVE

Examples:

5. Describing how indigeneous women


view their pregnancies and how they
prepare for childbirth through case study
approach.
WHEN DO WE USE
QUALITATIVE AND
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH?
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH KEY WORDS

 how many
 test
 verify
 how often
 how satisfied
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH KEY WORDS

 discover
 motivation
 experiences
 think/thoughts
 problems
 behave/behavior
A combination of these keywords may mean:

1. You may consider using


both quantitative and
qualitative research - this is
called triangulation.
A combination of these keywords may mean:

2. Your ideas are still unclear


and you need to focus a
little more.
References:
• MacDonald, S., Headlam, N. 2009. Research Methods
Introductory Guide to research methods for social research.
Centre for Local Economic Strategies Express Networks. 1
George Leigh Street Manchester M4 5DL

• Dawson, C. 2002. Practical Researh Methods. A user-


friendly guide to mastering research techniques and
projects. HowToBooks Ltd., 3 Newtec Place, Magdalen
Road, Oxford OX4. 1RE. United Kingdom