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Computing Skills

EDU 105
Data
Data is popularly
referred to as raw facts.
It is the un processed
form of information
Data Representation
• Binary Number System(Base Two)
• Octal Number System(Base Eight)
• Decimal Number System(Base
Ten)
• Hexadecimal Number
System(Base Sixteen)
ASCII abbreviated from
American Standard Code
for Information
Interchange
INFORMATION
Information is the
product obtained after
processing data. It is a
more useful and
intelligible form of data.
PERIPHERAL DEVICES
These are input or output
devices connected to a
computer. A device is said to
be online when it is under
the direct control of a
computer.
Examples include
mouse, keyboard,
pendrive, joystick etc .
HARDWARE
This refers to all the
electronic and
mechanical components
associated with a
computer system
Components of a Computer
These components are
categorized into;
•Input
•Storage
•Processing
•Output
INPUT
INPUT DEVICES
These devices that provide
an interface between the
user and the computer
allowing the entry of data
and instructions
Keyboard
This device was introduced
with the third generation
of computers. The keys
typically found on
computer keyboards are
often classified as follows:
• Alphanumeric keys: The letters
and numbers on the keyboard.
• Punctuation keys: The comma,
period, semicolon, and similar
keys.
• Special keys: This includes
the function keys, control
keys, arrow keys, caps lock key
and so on.
Some Keyboard Types

• QWERTY keyboard

• AZERTY keyboard is the French


version of the standard
QWERTY keyboard
Mouse
These became more popular
with the fourth generation of
computers. This pointing device
allows input by providing the
user with the options of
choosing items in the form of
pictures and icons
Some Mouse Terms
 Click – this refers to pressing the left button
once.
 Double Click – this refers to pressing the left
button twice in succession
 Drag – press and hold the left button while
moving the device
 Right Click – pressing the right button once
 Scroll – rolling the wheel forward or
backwards
STORAGE
STORAGE DEVICE
Storage devices are
categorized into two,
primary (main memory)
and secondary storage
devices.
Primary Storage Device
• RAM - Random Access
Memory: data access is done
randomly. Therefore access
time is small.
• SAM - Sequential Access
Memory: data access is
orderly.
Secondary Storage Devices
A: Optical –CD-ROM disk is an example.
• CD- Compact Disk
• ROM – Read Only Memory

B: Magnetic - Eg. Floppy Disk, Hard Disk


etc
Storage Devices

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Storage Devices
• An external hard disk is a separate freestanding hard
disk that connects with a cable to a port on the
system unit or communicates wirelessly
• A removable hard disk is a hard disk that you insert
and remove from a drive

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Storage Devices
• Flash memory is a type of memory that can be
erased electronically and rewritten
– Solid state media
– A solid state drive (SSD) is a storage device that typically
uses flash memory to store data, instructions, and
information

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Storage Devices
• A memory card is a removable
flash memory device, usually
no bigger than 1.5 inches in
height or width, that you insert
and remove from a slot in a
computer, mobile device, or
card reader/writer

Microsoft Office 2010:


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Introduction to Computers
Storage Devices
• A USB flash drive, sometimes
called a thumb drive, is a
flash memory storage device
that plugs into a USB port on
a computer or mobile device

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Storage Devices
• Cloud storage is an Internet service that
provides hard disk storage to computer users

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Formatting is the
process of preparing a
disk for reading and
writing.
PROCESSING
All processing activities that
includes manipulation of data,
controlling of hardware and
taking of critical decisions within
the system is carried out by the
central processing unit (CPU)
• With Windows computers
there are two major brands
of processors which are
Intel and AMD.

• Examples: Intel Core 2 Duo,


AMD Turion X2
It is divided into three major
parts;
–Storage Unit: RAM & ROM
–Control Unit
–ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
RAM

RAM is TEMPORARY memory

RAM is volatile
• stores ON and OFF bits (software and data)
electrically
• when power goes off, everything in RAM is lost
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ROM (Read Only Memory)

ROM (Read Only Memory) = integrated circuits (microchips) that are used to
permanently store start-up (boot) instructions and other critical information
Read Only = information which:
• Cannot be changed
• Cannot be removed
• Fixed by manufacturer

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ROM (Read Only Memory)

ROM is sometimes known as ROM BIOS

ROM contains:
• start-up (boot) instructions
• instructions to do “low level” processing of input and output devices, such as
the communications with the keyboard and the monitor

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S
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e Control U
Unit
OUTPUT
• Provides an interface
between user and the
computer
• Hardware that conveys
information to a user
Output devices could be sub grouped
into
• Display Devices
• Print Devices
• Sound
• Others
Monitors

CRT Display

Flat Screen
Printer Speakers
GPS system in a car
“The Box”
CRT Display CD-ROM Drive

Floppy
Disk
Drive

Keyboard

Mouse
What is the system unit?
Box-like case containing
electronic components
used to process data
Inside “The Box”
What is the magical inside the black box?

Memory Video
card Card

Power
Suppy

Sound
Card

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Motherboard
CPU
(Central Processing Unit)
SIMM
(Single Inline Memory Module)
HDD
(Hard Disk Drive)
Power Supply
Schematic Diagram of a Personal
Computer...
bus
Disk
Printer
controller
Mouse Ports
Keyboard
Graphics
Modem card Monitor

CPU Speakers
Sound
card

RAM
Network
card
Computer
Computer Performance:
• CPU speed (and
type)
• Amount of RAM
(and speed)
• Hard disk capacity

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Components of a Computer

INPUT SYSTEM UNIT OUTPUT

PERMANENT
STORAGE

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Assignment:

Get the full meaning of these acronyms

CD-RW
DVD-ROM
DVD+RW
BIOS
VCD
USB
NETWORK &
Purpose of Computer
Networking
•File sharing
•Hardware sharing
•Program sharing
•User communication
Networking Devices
• Cables
• Hubs
• Switches
• Routers
• Wireless Access Point
Networks and the Internet
• What is a network?
 Collection of computers and devices connected together

Communications
Device Communications
Media

Enables a Satellites
Cables
connection
Telephone Cellular
between
lines radio
computers
One type is
a modem

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Networks and the Internet
• Why do we need network?
To share

Resources
Hardware
devices
Software
programs
To save
Data
time
Information and
money

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Networks and the Internet
• What is a server?
 Manages the
resources on
a network

 A client accesses
the resources
on the server

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Networks and the Internet
• What is the Internet?
 Worldwide collection of networks that connects
millions of computers

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Networks and the Internet
Why do users access the Internet?
1. Communications
2. Information
3. Shopping
4. Banking and Investing
5. Classes
6. Entertainment

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Networks and the Internet
• What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?
 Billions of documents, called Web pages, available to
anyone connected to the Internet

A Web site is
a collection of
related Web pages
A Web page contains
text, graphics, sound,
video, and links to You can share
other Web pages information by
creating Web pages
or posting photos on
a photo community

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Computer Software
• Computer software is the key to productive
use of computers. Software can be
categorized into two types:

• Console Software

• Graphic User Interface Software


CLI – Command Line Interface

• No GUI
• MS DOS / Command
Prompt
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Computer Software
• What is a graphical user interface (GUI)?

 Allows you to interact with the software


using graphics and icons

 Controls how you enter data and how the


screen displays information

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GUI – Graphical User Interface
Windows 3.1

Windows
95/98/XP

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Software
• System Software
• Application Software

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Computer Software
• What is system software?
 Programs that control the operations of the computer
and its devices

Operating System (OS)


is a set of programs
that coordinates all Utility Programs allow the user to
activities among perform maintenance-type tasks
computer hardware usually related to managing a
devices and allows computer, its devices or its programs
users to run
application software

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Operating System Software
• Loads automatically
when you switch on a
computer
• Main roles:
– Controls hardware and
software
– Permits you to manage
files
– Acts as intermediary
between user and
applications
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Computer Software
• What is application software?

 Programs that perform specific tasks for users


 Suite
Popular software applications
bundled together as a single unit

Word
Spreadsheet
Processing

Presentation
Database
Graphics

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Application Software
• Cannot function without the OS
(Operating System)
• Written for a specific operating system
and computer hardware.

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Word Processing

• Word Processing software is used to create and print


documents. A key advantage of word processing software
is that users easily can make changes in documents.

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Electronic Spreadsheets

• Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add,


subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows
and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed
and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results.

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Database Software

• Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an


organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and
reporting capabilities.

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Presentation Graphics

• Presentation graphic software allows the user to create


documents called slides to be used in making the
presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides
display as they appear on the computer screen.

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Computer Software

Microsoft Office 2010:


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Introduction to Computers
Questions