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TE – 41
ADDITION +++++++++



Concrete is a mixture
of cement (11%), fine
aggregates (26%),
coarse aggregates
(41%) and water
(16%) and air (6%).
Production of Concrete

A. Material

Production of Concrete
B. Process


Basic Ingredients of Concrete
Normally natural
CEMENT AGGREGATE sand or crushed
stone, and
particles smaller
than 3/8”.


The most important Gives volume to gravel or crushed
and costliest the concrete. stone. Makes up
ingredient of (Generally 30%-
concrete. The
40%-45% of the
35% of the mixture,
mixture) comprised of
particles greater
than 1/4".
Basic Ingredients of Concrete
Air entrainment
Set accelerators
Set retarders

• Required for hydration. • An optional Water reducers

• Restricted to minimum ingredient used only
as possible considering
the requirement for
for some specific
purpose. Mineral admixtures
chemical reaction with • Used to modify some
cement and workability of the properties of
Advantages of Concrete

has many
l advantages, •The raw materials
including used in cement
•Ability to •Fire •On-site •Aesthetic
durability, production are
be Cast resistant fabrication properties.
longevity, widely available in
heat storage great quantities.
and chemical
Advantages of Concrete

•Chemically •Concrete can

inert concrete be reused with
doesn't require bituminous
paint to achieve asphalt as road
a given colour; base materials,
•Needs little or no natural -mineral can be recycled
•Low •Can be reused
finish or final pigments and and reused by
maintenance. or recycled.
colouring agents crushing into
can be added aggregates for
at the mixing to new concrete or
provide a as fill material for
rainbow of road beds or site
options. works.
Limitations of Concrete

•Low tensile strength

Low ductility

Volume instability

Low strength-to-weight ratio

Progress in Concrete Technology

High Workability or
Flowing Concrete •Shrinkage
High-Strength - Also known as self Concrete
Concrete compacting concrete,
self- placing concrete, -made with expansive
- Typically recognized self levelling concrete, cement or an
as concrete with a 28- self- consolidating expansive admixture
Concrete day cylinder concrete (SCC). The that causes the
compressive strength constructability of concrete to expand
greater than 6000 psi or highly congested during early-age
42 Mpa. reinforced concrete hardening, and thus
elements requires the serves to offset normal
fresh concrete mixtures drying shrinkage
to be very fluid.
Progress in Concrete Technology
•Mass Concrete

- is any volume of concrete with

dimensions large enough to require
that measures be taken to cope
with the generation of heat from
hydration of the cement and
Fiber- •Concrete
attendant volume change to
Reinforced Containing
minimize cracking.
Concrete polymers

Heavyweight Concrete

- uses heavy natural

aggregates such as barites or Roller-
magnetite or manufactured
aggregates such as iron or lead
shot. The main land-based Concrete
application is for radiation
shielding (medical or nuclear).`
History of Concrete
12,000,000 B.C.
Chinese 800 BC –
• Reactions between Greeks, Crete
limestone and oil shale 3000 BC - Egyptians • Used 300 BC -
cementitious & Cyprus
during spontaneous • Used mud mixed with Babylonians &
combustion occurred in straw to bind dried materials to • Used lime As Syrians
Palestine to form a natural bricks. They also used hold bamboo mortars
together in which were • Used bitumen
deposit of cement gypsum mortars and to bind stones
compounds. The deposits mortars of lime in the their boats much
and in the harder than and bricks.
were characterized by the pyramids.
geologists in the 1960's Great wall. later Roman
and 70's. mortars.

1822 1824 1828 1830

1200 – 1500 The Middle • James Frost of
Ages • Joseph Aspdin of England • I. K. Brunel is • The first
England invented portland cement by credited with the production
• The quality of cementing prepared burning finely ground chalk with first engineering of lime and
materials deteriorated. artificial finely divided clay in a lime kiln application of hydraulic
The use of burning lime hydraulic lime until carbon dioxide was driven portland cement, cement took
and pozzolan like Vicat's off. The sintered product was which was used to place in
(admixture) was lost, but and called it then ground and he called it fill a breach in the Canada.
reintroduced in the British portland cement named after Thames Tunnel.
1300's. Cement. the high quality building stones
quarried at Portland, England.

1836 1845 1849

• The first systematic tests of tensile and • Isaac Johnson claims to have burned • Pettenkofer & Fuches performed the
compressive strength took place in the raw materials of portland cement to first accurate chemical analysis of
Germany. clinkering temperatures. portland cement.
History of Concrete
1886 •The first rotary kiln was introduced in England to replace the vertical shaft kilns.
1889 •The first concrete reinforced bridge is built.

•The addition of gypsum when grinding clinker to act as a retardant to the setting of concrete was
1890 introduced in the USA. Vertical shaft kilns were replaced with rotary kilns and ball mills were used for
grinding cement.

1891 •George Bartholomew placed the first concrete street in the USA in Bellefontaine, OH. It still exists today!
1900 •Basic cement tests were standardized.
1930 •Air entraining agents were introduced to improve concrete's resistance to freeze/thaw damage.

1967 •First concrete domed sport structure, the Assembly Hall, was constructed at The University of Illinois, at
1970's •Fiber reinforcement in concrete was introduced.
1980's •Superplasticizers were introduced as admixtures.

1985 •Silica fume was introduced as a pozzolanic additive. The "highest strength" concrete was used in
building the Union Plaza constructed in Seattle, Washington.