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Supplementary Cementitious

Materials
Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures – Chapter 4
Overview
 Fly ash
 Slag cement
 Silica fume
 Natural pozzolans
 Reactions
 Effects on concrete
 Proportioning
Supplementary Cementitious Materials
Supplementary Cementitious Materials
SCM Properties
Fly Ash
Fly Ash
 ASTM C618
 Class F
 Pozzolanic
 SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 ≥ 70%

 Class C
 Pozzolanic with some hydraulic behavior
 SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 ≥ 50%
Fly Ash – Physical Properties
Slag Cement
Slag Cement
 ASTM C989
 Grade 80
 Grade 100
 Grade 120
Slag Cement
Silica Fume
Silica Fume
 ASTM C1240
 As-produced
 Slurry
 Densified
 Up to 99% silica content
Silica Fume
Natural Pozzolans
 ASTM C618, Class N
 Calcined shale
 Calcined clay
 Volcanic ash
Natural Pozzolans
Metakaolin
Pozzolanic Reactions
 Pozzolan + CH = C-S-H
 Different from portland cement C-S-H
 Contribute to strength
 Reduces permeability
Hydraulic Reactions
 Slag cement and some pozzolans with high
calcium contents
 No calcium hydroxide byproduct; may consume
calcium hydroxide from system
 Reactivity dependant on fineness and
composition of slag cement, temperature, and
alkali content of portland cement
Effects on Freshly Mixed Concrete
Water Demand
Workability
 Increases
 Fly ash
 Slag cement
 Calcined shale and clay
 Decreases
 Silica fume
 Metakaolin
Bleeding and Segregation
Setting Time
Air Content
 SCMs generally require more air-entraining
admixture
 Effect of fly ash dependent on carbon content,
fineness, alkali content
 Effect of slag cement is minimal; caused by
fineness
 Effect of silica fume is significant due to
fineness
Heat of Hydration
Effects on Hardened Concrete
Strength

(Whiting 1989).
Strength

(Detwiler 2000).
Impact and Abrasion Resistance

(Gebler and Klieger 1986)


Permeability and Absorption
 SCMs generally reduce permeability and
absorption
 Silica fume and metakaolin significantly reduce
permeability and absorption
 Increased corrosion resistance
Alkali-Silica Reactivity

(Detwiler 2002)
Alkali-Silica Reactivity

(Lerch 1950).
Alkali-Silica Reactivity

(Thomas 2007).
Sulfate Resistance
 SCMs improve sulfate resistance
 Fly ash: Class F better than Class C
 Calcined clay: better than Type V portland
cement
Deicer-Scaling Resistance
Deicer-Scaling Resistance

(After Whiting 1989).


Deicer-Scaling Resistance

(Whiting 1989).
Deicer-Scaling Resistance
Concrete Mixture Proportions
 Optimums determined by testing
 Ternary/Quaternary systems
 Synergy between SCMS
 Fly ash offsets silica fume workability issues
 Silica fume compensates for low early-strength of
fly ash
Summary
 Fly ash
 Slag cement
 Silica fume
 Natural pozzolans
 Reactions
 Effects on concrete
 Proportioning
Questions