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International Relations

International Relations

International Relations
is studied either as a
subfield of political
science or as an
independent discipline.
The discipline of
international
relations deals with the
war, military alliance,
diplomacy, trade,
cooperation & peace.
Definitions to IR
• Trevor Taylor (1979) defines International Relations as "a
discipline, which tries to explain political activities across state
boundaries".
• According to Ola, Joseph (1999),
"International relations are the study of all forms of interactions
that exist between members of separate entities or nations
within the international system“
• As Stanley Hoffman writes
“the discipline of international relations is concerned with
the factors and the activities which affect the external policies
and power of the basic units into which the world is divided.”
Meaning of IR
• No nation is an island. Because domestic policies are
constantly affected by developments outside, nations are
compelled to (rather than sit on the fence or out-rightly
isolate themselves) enter into dialogue with target
or initiating entities or form alliance(s) for the purpose of
enhancing their status quo, or increasing their power or
prestige and survival in' the
international system.

Because international relations is in transition following


emerging realities in the international system, it has become
complex and even more difficult arriving at a more
universally acceptable definition of the subject. But this is
not peculiar to international relations as there are more
intense disagreements over the definition of political
IR links with other fields
• Besides political science, the field of International Relations
draws intellectual materials from the fields
• Technology and engineering,
• Economics,
• History
• International law
• Philosophy
• Geography, and social work,
• Sociology,
• Anthropology, and criminology,
• Psychology and Gender studies,
• Cultural studies and Culturology.
International Relations

 Nature of International Relations


 Two Views
 1. Narrow/strict view
Just confined to official relations among states conducted by
political leadership.
 2. Broader view
The scholars of this view advocate that subject matter of IR is
not confined to just official /formal relations among the
sovereign states but they include the political, economic,
social, cultural, military, ideological and so many other as well.
Scope Of International Relations As A Field Of Study
• Since the Age of Colonization in the eighteenth century,
international relations have included the globe.
• It is continuously expending & becoming very complex due
to many factors such as LPG (globalization, privatization, &
liberalization), advancement in technology (communication,
transportation, & media), global issues (Terrorism, poverty,
global warming, etc.), so on & so forth.
• Now, world has become a global village.
Importance of International Relation
• To avoid world wars-
• The 20 century witnessed two world war which was very
danger in their destruction of man and material. It is feared
that a third world war would wipe out the human race on
earth if it comes. The study of IR helps us to analyze and
aims of the states in the world affairs, the methods adopted
for that attainment of these objects and the factors which
ultimately lead to their success or failure. The international
understanding helps us to analyze helps the all states to live
boldly and confidently in the world of diversity with
peacefully.
Importance of International Relation
• The 21 century IR becoming more and more complex.
• Today each country has become dependent upon the other
states for one or the other things.
• In this interdependent world we can not think of any states
having an isolated life.
• The concept of national sovereignty has now outdated in
the context of international co-existence.
• Therefore each nation state has to surrender at least some
of its nation sovereignty. If it is not done international co-
operation is impossible.
Importance of International Relation
• Educative values-
• Today the modern weapons of warfare have became very
sophisticated and too much danger in a matter of few hours
they can wipe out millions of population by their atom
bombs, germ warfare etc.
• It warns about the threat to the world peace and need to
have precautionary measure. To educate the people in the
interest of the very survival of human race.
• Better World Order- Study of the IR aims at better
understanding of problems of the world.
• Any states which violate international peace should be
silenced by collective actions of all the states.
Importance of International Relation
• It avoids international conflicts and ensures
international peace
• It helps to understand the true importance of
collective security and disagreement
.• These all are making way for the new concept
of ―World village or ―World Community
• By the above all reasons the importance of
study of IR is becoming very popular in the
present age, because of interdependence of all
the nation- states.
Factors Determining International Relations
Main Factors:
(i) Geographic;
(ii) Economic;
(iii) Demographic;
(iv) Strategic
Additional Factors:
(i) The historical-psychological, Sociological factor;
(ii) The organizational-administrative factor;
(iii) The military factor
Impact of IR on daily life

•IR has a significant impact on our lives. Our


daily lives are increasingly international in
their focus, improvements in
communications and transport technology
mean we are constantly coming into contact
with people, places, products, opportunities
and ideas from other countries
Impact of IR on daily life
•The term International Relations incorporate the
vast and multicolored phenomena composed of
international conference, the comings and
goings of diplomats, the signing of treaties, the
deployment of military forces, and flow of
international trade as well as burning issues of
migrant worker, asylum seekers etc
History of IR
• International relations is an old subject and can be traced in
the old tribes. It was utilized by the Greeks and Romans in
their relations.
• As a regular subject, international relations took start in the
World War-I era and specially because of the second World
War, Cold War between USA and USSR, disintegration of
USSR, New World Order (NWO) of USA, global role of North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) emergence of
international organization and diplomatic relations etc.
developed this subject to great extent.
Scope of IR
• Michael Nicholson writes in his book “international relations
a concise introduction” – that
• scholars of international relations study, peace and war;
imperialism and nationalism; the wealth of some societies
and the poverty of others; nuclear weapons and the
possibility of extinction; the environment and global
warming; human rights across the world; the merging of
states and the splitting up of states; the European Union;
international organizations; religions and their political
impact; trade and the development of the multinational
corporation; race and gender around the globe; globalization
and the information revolution.
Scope of IR
• Establishment of League of Nations. In modern time the field of the
study was widened with the establishment of the League of Nations in
1920, after the First World War due to the sincere efforts of Woodrow
Wilson of USA. The establishment of the League of Nations
contributed to the study of international relations. Therefore, the
study of international organizations and international institutions was
also included in its preview.

• Emergence of USA and USSR as a Super Powers. Emergence of USA


and USSR as superpowers further widened the scope of international
relations. After the second World War the world transformed into
bipolarity from multi-polarity with USA and USSR flourishing in
international affairs. Both the superpowers conducted international
relations according to their own interests.
Scope of IR
• Establishment of United Nations. After the end of World
War II various international conferences were held.
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Tehran and Yalta. They
agreed in principle to form a worldwide international
organization for peace loving states. Therefore, an
acceptable charter was signed on 26th June 1945. United
Nations is a global organization of independent and
sovereign states and its main aim is "to maintain
international peace and security." The establishment of the
UN also contributed to the study of international relations
to great extent.
Scope of IR
• Emergence of USA as a Superpower (New World
Order). The end of USSR as a superpower in Dec, 1990
changed the whole world and USA emerged as a
superpower that adopted international politics in such a way
that majority of the nations of the world visualized
themselves as the subjected mission of the single power.
The Gulf War of 1991 paved the way for USA to emerge as a
superpower that resulted in the USA's N.W.O under that USA
became the master of the world politics. Emergence of USA
as a superpower also extended the scope of international
relations.
Scope of IR
• Technological Development.
Technology exercises profound influence on the power base
of a state as well as the course of international relations.
Technology at least in three spheres, industrial,
communication and military, has greatly influenced the power
of the state. Due to technological development the world has
become a global village. Technological development also
extended the scope and value of international relations
Scope of IR

•Globalization. Due to certain reasons the scattered


world is going towards integration. The world is now
a single village and states are incomplete with one
another. This situation increased the scope of
international relations.
SYSTEMIC TOOLS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

• Diplomacy is the practice of communication and negotiation


between representatives of states. To some extent, all other
tools of international relations can be considered the failure
of diplomacy. Keeping in mind, the use of other tools are
part of the communication and negotiation inherent within
diplomacy. Sanctions, force, and adjusting trade regulations,
while not typically considered part of diplomacy, are actually
valuable tools in the interest of leverage and placement in
negotiations.
SYSTEMIC TOOLS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
• The mobilization of international shame can also be thought
of as a tool of international relations. This is attempting to
alter states' actions through 'naming and shaming' at the
international level. This is mostly done by the large human
rights NGOs such as Amnesty International (for instance
when it called Guantanamo Bay a "Gulag"), or Human Rights
Watch. A prominent use of was the UN Commission on
Human Rights, which publicly exposes state's human rights
violations. The current United Nations Human Rights Council
has yet to use this Mechanism
• Thanks