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 First aid is the temporary and immediate

treatment given to a person who is injured or

suddenly become ill.
1. To preserve life.
2. To prevent further injury and deterioration
of the condition.
3. To make the victim as comfortable as
possible to conserve strength.
4. To put the injured person under
professional medical care at the earliest.
 A first aider is just a common person who
may have learnt a standard method at
application of first aid best suited to his

 He is trained to prevent further injury, reach

patient, identify the problem and provide
emergency care.
 Restoration respiration.
 Control bleeding
 Treat shock
 Care for the unconscious.
 Manage Fracture
 Manage Burn
 Treat for Multiple injuries.
 Transportation of the victim.
 Should be a good Observer.
 Should be able to act quickly.
 Should not get panic or excite.
 Should have the ability to lead and control the
crowd and take help from the observers.
 Should have self- confidence and ability to
judge injuries.
 Should be able to reassure the victim.
1. Ability to control of the accident.
2. Gain access to the patient.
3. Ability to determine vital signs( pulse,
respiration, skin temperature.)
4. Ability to perform the necessary ABC s of
emergency care.
- open Air way
- Breathing
- Circulation
bleeding control
5. Diagnosis and care for shock.
6. Ability to do basic dressing and bandaging
10. Ability to care for fractures and
11. Detect and care for poisoning.
12. Diagnosis and care for heart attack, stroke,
diabetic coma, insulin shock and seizures.
13. Diagnosis and care for head, spinal and
chest injuries.
14. Ability to care for burn.
15. Assist in child birth and care of the
16. Ability to provide psychological support
to victims of crisis and disaster.
17. Perform proper transformation
 Triangular bandages
 Roller type bandages
 Dressing/ gauze pads
 Adhesive tape
 Bandage sheats
 Eye protector
 Tourniquet
 Blanket
 Pillow
 Upper extremity splint set
 Lower extremity splint set
1. A rapid but calm approach.
2. A quick assessment of the situation and
the casualty.
3. A correct diagnosis of the condition based
on the history of the incident, symptoms
and signs.
4. Immediate and appropriate treatment of
any conditions.
5. Proper disposal of the casualty according
to the injury or condition.
 This should be quick but calm and controlled.
 Do not place yourself in danger when
approaching the casualty.
 Give your identification if there are no
doctors, nurses or other trained people
 Assess the situation and decide on the
priorities of action.
A. Safety
B. Help
C. Determine the priorities of treatment.
 Minimize the risk of danger to yourself and
other helpers.
 Limit further arising of casualties.
in road accident- control the traffic
gas and poisonous fumes - watch out for
fire risks.
- If possible cut off the source.
 Electrical contact
- Break the contact if possible and take
the necessary precautions against further

 Fire and collapsing buildings

- Immediately move the casualty to safety
 Call bystanders to help you.
 Tell him to control traffic and call for
 Airway and breathing
- Check breathing
- Artificial ventilation immediately.
 Circulation
- quickly check the pulse and heart beat.
- start external cardiac massage.
 Bleeding
- Check the casualty for any severe bleeding
and control it.

 Unconsciousness
- Keep the recovery position.
- If there is any possibility of spinal injury do
not move the casualty unless difficulty in
breathing makes it essential.

 Shock
- Keep the casualty warm, quiet and lying
down until skilled help arrives.
 Other needs
If there is no immediate danger to life
treat for all fractures and large wounds
before moving the casualty.
Priority of treating casualties may be in
following orders.
Highest priority

Second priority

Lowest priority
 Respiratory arrest, airway obstruction.
 Cardiac arrest.
 Severe bleeding.
 Severe head injuries.
 Open chest wound
 Open abdominal wounds
 Severe shock
 Burns involving respiratory tract
 Unconscious.
 Severe burns
 Injuries to spine
 Moderate bleeding
 Conscious patient with head injuries.
 Multiple fractures.
 Minor bleeding.
 Obvious mortal wounds where first response
is not helpful.
 Obvious death.
 Diagnosis the condition by taking history,
sings and symptoms and vital signs.

How the incident occurred or the illness
1) Breathing rate
2) Pulse rate
3) Pupil reaction
4) Level of consciousness
5) Skin temperature
6) Skin colour
7) Ability to move
8) Reaction to pain
 Count the number of respirations

3 months – 2 years 35/ min

2 Years – 6 years 23/min
6 years – 12 years 20/min
12 years – 15 years 18/min
15 years – 21 years 16- 21/min
 Carotid - neck
 Brachial - at the elbow
 Pulse rate in
new born - 130- 140
1Y - 115- 130
2Y - 110- 115
3Y - 95 – 105
7 Y- 13 Y - 80- 90
14 Y- 21Y - 75 – 85
21 – 60 Y - 75 - 80
 Equality of size
unequal size of pupils is results of injuries
and strokes.

 Reaction to light
 This provides many clues to the type of
alert - brain is functioning normally
restless - pain, hemorrhage, head injury,
brain tumour, heart attack, shock.
unconscious - coma stage.
 Cold and clammy skin.
 Hyperthermia.
 Skin colour gives clue regarding circulation.

 Red skin - high blood pressure, heart attack,

heart stroke, diabetic coma.

 Blue skin- heart failure, airway problems,

lung disease, certain poisoning.
 Inability to move indicates fracture, injury to
spinal cord, stroke or head injury.
 Physical examination

 observe skin colour, lacerations and facial
 Assess level of consciousness.
 Check pupils.
 Palpate gently for depressions in the skull
 Check ears and nose for fluid or blood.
 Check mouth or foreign objects and
 Observe and palpate areas of tenderness and

 palpate entire length for pain, wounds,
deformity and sensation.
 Ask about pain, tingling, numbness and
 Palpate clavicles and shoulders.
 Observe for whether the chest expand
normally upon inspiration.
 press on the sternum to check for pain.
 Press gently on lateral ribs, checking for
integrity of ribs.
 Observe abdominal wound and distention.
 Palpate abdomen for tenderness and rigidity.

 Palpate iliac crest and pubis for pain.
 Observe for incontinence.
 Palpate for tenderness, wounds and observe
deformities from shoulders to buttocks.

 Palpate entire leg for pain, deformity, wounds
and sensation.
 Ask about pain, tingling, numbness and
 There are 3 step for treatment

1. Preserve life.
2. Prevent the condition worsening.
3. Promote recovery.