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DR NEENA SONDHI

CHAPTER-6

QUALITATIVE METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION


DR DEEPAK CHAWLA

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-1

Qualitative data collection methods

Qualitative methods of data collection explore the


latent and the unconscious constructs through
various means that are loosely structured and
require in-depth and closer exploration and
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reporting of phenomena or behavior, which would


not be apparent through more structured methods.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-2

Classification of qualitative methods


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Qualitative Research
Procedures

Direct Indirect
(Nondisguised) (Disguised)

Observation Focus Depth Content


Groups Interviews Analysis
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Projective Sociometry New


Techniques

Association Completion Construction Expressive Choice /


Techniques Techniques Techniques Techniques Ordering

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-3

Qualitative vs quantitative methods


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Research stage Qualitative Quantitative

Study objective Exploratory, investigative Definite, conclusive and


predictive
Research design Loosely structured Structured, controlled
conditions
Sampling plan Small samples Large/representative
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samples
Type of approach Loosely structured Formatted & structured

Data analysis Textual and non-statistical Statistically tested and


authenticated
Study deliverables Explanatory and supportive Conclusive and action
oriented

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-4

Observation method
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Observation involves viewing and recording individuals,


groups, organizations or events in a scientific manner in
order to collect valuable data related to the topic under
study.

Method format:
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 Standardized and structured

 Non-standardized and unstructured

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-5

Observation method
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Level of respondent consciousness


 Disguised observation
 Undisguised observation

Observation setting
 Natural environment
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 Simulated environment

Role of the human participant


 Participating
 Non-participating

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-6

Mechanical observation method


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 Store scanners and store cameras

 Audio and people meters

 Psycho galvanometer
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 Oculometers

 Pupilometers

 Voice pitch meters

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-7

Observation guide(sample sheet)


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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-8

Content Analysis
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Content analysis technique involves studying a


previously recorded or reported communication and
systematically and objectively breaking it up into more
manageable units that are related to the topic under
study.
 Material studied is usually ex-post facto.
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 Study and analysis is, however, primary and problem


specific.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-9

Content Analysis
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Universe of content
 Word

 Theme

 Character
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 Space measures

 Time measures

 Item

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-10
Content Analysis
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Validating the findings


Obtaining the analysis from multiple evaluators and cross
validating using the following formula
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 Pr (a) = the relative observed agreement between the two


raters
 Pr (e) = the probability that this is due to chance.

If the two raters are in complete agreement then Kappa is =1. If


there is no agreement then Kappa=0, 0.21-0.40 is fair, 0.41-
0.80 is good and 0.81-1.00 is considered as excellent.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES
SLIDE 6-11

Focus group discussion


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A focus group discussion involves collecting information


from a representative group of respondents in a neutral
setting. The process generally involves a moderator
who maneuvers the discussion on the topic under
study.
 It is essentially a sociological technique.
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 The group dynamics influence the individual to


respond in divergent ways.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-12

Key elements of focus group method


 Size: Ideal recommended size for a group discussion is
8 to 12 members.

 Nature: Composition of the group should be homogenous-


in terms of demographic and psychographic traits and
product/subject knowledge.
 It is
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 Acquaintance: recommended that the members in a group


should be strangers to each other.

 Setting: Discussion setting should be neutral, informal and


comfortable.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-13
Key elements of
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Focus Group discussion(FGD)


 Time period: usually recommended that the
discussion should take place in a single setting.

 Recording: human or mechanical recording of the


entire discussion.
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 Moderator: key conductor, might be a participant or a


non-participant.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-14

Key moderator skills


 Listening skills

 Observation skills

 Flexibility of approach
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 Empathetic yet objectivity of conduction

 Summary and closure approach

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-14

Planning & Conducting FGDs


 Define the research objective(s) requiring discussion

 Split and bulleted into information areas

 Identifying the respondent screening/selection criteria


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 Conducting the FGD

 Summarizing the findings of the FGD

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-15

Stages in group formation


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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-15

Sample FGD guide


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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-15

Types of focus groups


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 Two-way focus group

 Dual moderator group

 Fencing moderator group

 Friendship group

 Mini-groups
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 Creativity groups

 Brand-obsessive groups

 Online focus groups

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-15

Focus group discussions


Advantages Disadvantages

 Idea generation  Group dynamics

 Group dynamics  Scientific process


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 Statistical analysis
 Process advantage

 Moderator/investigator
 Reliability & validity
bias

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-16

Personal interview method


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The personal interview is a one to one interaction


between the investigator/interviewer and the
interviewee. The purpose of the dialogue is research
specific and ranges from completely unstructured to
highly structured
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Typical Usage:
 Problem definition
 Exploratory research
 Primary data collection

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-17

Conducting the personal interview


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 Stating the interview objective

 Identifying the interview guidelines: unstructured,


semi-structured or structured.
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 Screening the interviewees

 Analysis and interpretation of interview data

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


SLIDE 6-18
Sample interview guide
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-18

Categorization of personal interviews


Interview Methods

Telephone Personal
Interviewing Interviewing
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Traditional Computer – In-Home Mall Computer –


Assisted Intercept Assisted

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-19

Categorization of personal interviews


 Personal methods: these include at-home
interviews, mall-intercept interviews, computer
assisted personal interviews.
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 Telephone methods: these include traditional


telephonic interviews, computer assisted
telephonic interviews.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-20

Projective techniques
Projective techniques involve indirect questioning. The
respondent is given a relatively ambiguous stimuli and
the underlying assumption is that the respondents
would project their underlying needs, emotions, beliefs
and attitudes on to this object .
 Association techniques
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 Completion techniques
 Construction techniques
 Choice or ordering techniques
 Expressive techniques

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-21

Sociometric analysis
Sociometry involves measuring the choice,
communication and interpersonal relations of people in
different groups. The computations made on the basis
of these choices indicate the social attraction and
avoidance in a group.
Sociometric measures
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 Sociometric indices

 Sociometric matrix

 Sociogram

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


DR NEENA SONDHI SLIDE 6-22

Sociometric matrix(team choices)

Nimit Shanti Pooja Ravdeep Asmit Rini


Nimit 0 1 1 0 0 0
Shanti 1 0 0 0 1 0
Pooja 1 1 0 0 0 0
Ravdeep 0 1 0 0 1 0
Asmit 0 1 0 0 0 1
Rini 0 1 0 0 1 0
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∑ 2 5 1 0 2 1

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES


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END OF CHAPTER
DR DEEPAK CHAWLA

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND CASES