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HISTORY

The earliest description of MULTIPLE


SCLEROSIS (MS) was recorded in Holland
in August 4, 1421. But the researchers say
that the history was actually begun in 19th
century.

The first actual case was diagnosed in the


year 1849. It was Dr. Jean Martin Charcot
who gave the signs and symptoms of MS for
DEFINITION
Multiple Sclerosis is an Auto Immune Disease in which the
body starts to destroy itself.

 It is a life-long disease with no cure, can control symptoms.

 In MS, the body attacks and destroys the fatty tissue called
Myelin that insulates an axon/nerve, and is called
demyelination.

 If damage is severe, it can also destroy the nerve/axon itself

 MS affects the central nervous system and inflames the


white matter in the brain which creates plaques.
DEMYELINATION
AREAS AFFECTED DUE
TO MS
MS affects the following areas of human
body:

Brain
Spinal cord
Optic nerves
ETIOLOGY
Infection
Physical injury
Emotional stress
Excessive fatigue
Pregnancy
Poor state of health
TYPES OF MS
Following are the different types of
MS:

Relapsing – remitting MS
Primary – progressive MS
Progressive – relapsing MS
Secondary – progressive MS
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO
MS
Environmental factors
Genetic factors
Epigenetic, post genomic and
regulatory events
Internal state of mind
Genome allelic variants
VARIOUS SIGNS AND
SYMPTOMS OF MS
Memory loss
Depression
Urinary and bowel problems
Weakness and exhaustion
Difficulty in walking
Vision impairment
Tingling and numbness of skin and limbs
CAUSES OF MS
The exact cause of the Multiple Sclerosis is
unknown.

In MS affected patients, a higher number of


immune cells can be seen which suggests that
there might be an immune response, this is
suspected due to a virus or the gene defect.

Other causes may be mostly related to


environmental and hereditary .
DIAGNOSIS
No single test to diagnose Multiple Sclerosis.

Diagnosis relies recognition of clinical


patterns of the disease as well as the exclusion
of the possible mimics.

Waxing and waning neurological deficit is the


Hall mark of the disease.

Supported by MRI studies, CSF & provoked


potential studies.
TREATMENT FOR MS
Although there is no cure for the MS, treatment
aims to reduce the number of relapse or attacks and
to decrease the severity when they occur.
Some of the treatments for MS are:

 Medications
 Chemotherapy
 Occupational therapy
 MRI devoted to neurological imaging
ALTERNATIVE
TREATMENTS
Yoga
Aromatherapy
Acupuncture
Homeopathy
Meditation
Reflexology
Dietary supplements
Herbal medication
Chiropractic
Physiotherapy