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Group 3
Anusha Gupta (B18134)
Arya Balial (B18135)
Atul Sharma (B18136)
Avnish Gaur (B18137)
Badrinath Bhimaraj (B18138)
Bhavin Shah (B18139)
What is Circular Economy ? ? ?
Linear Economy Circular Economy

Take Make Dispose

Looking beyond the current take-make-dispose extractive industrial model, a circular economy aims to redefine growth,
focusing on positive society-wide benefits. It entails gradually decoupling economic activity from the consumption of finite
resources, and designing waste out of the system. Underpinned by a transition to renewable energy sources, the circular
model builds economic, natural, and social capital. It is based on three principles:
- Design out waste and pollution
- Keep products and materials in use
- Regenerate natural systems
Kraaijenhagen, Van Oppen & Bocken. 2016, Ellen MacArthur Foundation,
Building Blocks of a circular economy

Circular New Business

Economy Design Model

Enablers and
Reverse Cycle Favourable
system conditions
Doing it the XEROX way!


Organisational Environmental Societal

• Cost effective option for • Natural resource Job creation and improved
the manufacturer conservation economic conditions such as
• Scarcity of natural • Waste reduction for those employed in the
resources drives price • Lower energy consumption jobs needed to support a
increases, making it circular economy.
difficult to keep
production costs stable
The Chinese Way

• Circular Economy Promotion Law in Guangzhou Huada

2008 - Front runner • Gearboxes, automotive transmission
• Circular Production - Reduce, Reuse, • 35k units/yr produced
• ‘Trade old for Remfg’ campaign by National
Development and Reform Commission
• Circular systems across all industries
including Agriculture to aid circular
Gem China
production. • Material Recycling
• Growth of Recycling industry - to • Battery recycling - EVs
convert urban waste streams by • Processed over 10% batteries used -
remanufacturing • Ni & Co extracted and re-used
• Green Consumption - Guiding every • 2016: 3m tonnes of resources recycled-
saving 14m tonnes of fossil fuel
citizen towards smart, healthy and safe
Indian Example - Tata Group

• Tata Sustainability Group driving the CE initiatives across all group companies
• Joined hands with Ellen Mcarthur Foundation to train executives on CE concepts and frameworks
• Tata Steel, JLR and Tata Global Beverages are working towards closed loop waste management

Tata Steel - The 3R Philosophy JLR - REALCAR TGB - Zero waste to landfill
• Set up Industrial By-products • Recycled Aluminium Car • 2012 : Eaglescliffe factory goes
Management Division in 2014 • Partnered with supplier Novelis zero waste - tea dust, paper etc
• Profit Centre - 3200 cr turnover to use Al Alloy recycled
in FY 2018 • Jaguar XE- first car with • 22% energy saving by installing
• 9m tonnes of waste recycled to reduced virgin material usage passive IR sensor lighting
make 25+ new products • 85,982 tonnes of Al scarp • Solar powered Pkg plants in
• Entire value chain involved, recovered in FY18 Haryana and HP - 25% energy
Dedicated sales team • 95% less energy required in consumption reduction
production with Recycled Al. • Project Jalodari -rainwater
harvesting systems
Facts and Figures - Global

Types of Waste according to origin:

1. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) from homes, institutions, small businesses
2. Industrial solid Waste – from production of consumer goods, mining,
petroleum extraction, agriculture
3. Hazardous Waste – toxic, chemically reactive, flammable or corrosive

Source:- https://theworldcounts.com
Facts and Figures - Global

Huge economic opportunity and maximum CAGR is

forecasted for APAC region.

Source: https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/waste-management-market
Facts and Figures- National

Source: Central Pollution Control Board, Govt. of India,

Potential Material Savings due to Circular Economy (India)
Potential Material Savings due to Circular Economy

A few examples of potential material savings due to circular economy :

● The cost of remanufacturing mobile phones - reduction by 50% per device—

if the industry made phones easier to take apart, improved the reverse cycle, and offered incentives to
return phones.

● High-end washing machines - leased instead of being sold— Over a 20-year period,
replacing the purchase of five 2,000-cycle machines with leases to one 10,000-cycle
machine would also yield almost 180 kg of steel savings.

● The U.K. could save USD 1.1 billion a year on landfill cost by keeping organic food waste out of
landfills—this would also reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 7.4 million tonnes p.a. and could
deliver up to 2 GWh worth of electricity and provide much-needed soil restoration and specialty
Potential Material Savings due to Circular Economy
Economic Opportunity in India due to Circular Economy

• A circular economy development path in India could

create annual value of ₹14 lakh crore (US$ 218
billion) in 2030 and ₹40 lakh crore (US$ 624 billion) in
2050 compared with the current development
scenario – a benefit equivalent to 30% of India’s
current GDP.
• Greenhouse gas emissions would be 44% lower in
2050 compared to the current development path.
• Businesses will capture part of the value created by
following circular economy, and it would boost Around half-a-trillion dollars worth of India's
disposable income. GDP value could be protected through
• The lower costs will help India implement initiatives Circular Economy business models by 2030 in
such as Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Housing for All) India and $4.5 trillion globally
and the National Food Security Mission.

Source : http://ficci.in/spdocument/22977/FICCI-Circular-Economy.pdf
Indian Government’s Policy

• India ratified the Paris Agreement on 2nd STANDARDIZATION OF CIRCULAR ECONOMY

October 2016 BS 8001: 2017 - first practical framework and guidance
• Zero Defect, Zero Effect scheme aims to of its kind for organizations to implement the principles
improve the quality of Indian manufacturing of the circular economy
while minimizing negative externalities.
ISO 323-CE – India among 22 participating members in
• National Action Plan on Climate Change
(comprising of National Solar Mission, National ISO. Standardization in the field of circular economy to
Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency, National develop requirements, frameworks, guidance and
Water Mission and others) aims to reduce supporting tools related to the implementation of
environment footprint of the economy. circular economy projects
• MoEFCC established established the Indian ISO 207 – Includes Eco-design and lifecycle assessment
Resource Panel to partner with other
governmental ministries and private / public
organizations to facilitate the use of recycled

Source: -https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/publications/Circular-economy-in-India_5-Dec_2016.pdf
Smart City Mission & Swachh Bharat Mission
̶ SCM under progress in India since 2015.
̶ Program envisions digitally enabled cities with sustainable development as a central focus, circular economy can
be embedded into it from the planning phases
̶ smart practices in different sectors like transport, waste management, energy management and so on
̶ Waste to energy targets and door-to-door waste collection system.
̶ RFID tagging of household bins and Vehicle Tracking and Monitoring System
▪ Internet of Things: Ensures a well-connected digital
infrastructure for the city
▪ Smart Mobility: Ensures efficient and time saving transport
▪ Sustainable Water Use: Enables prudent use of limited
water resources, water recycling and reuse
▪ Products as Services: Enables new business model for
resource recirculation, supporting 6Rs
▪ Renewable Energy: Integrates clean energy to all activities
▪ Materials Tracking: Supports productivity and ways to
conserve resources
▪ Waste=Resource: Ensures smart waste management,
resource recovery and 6Rs to achieve zero-waste goals
Functional Integration of Circular Economy
▪ Entire value chain needs to be
redesigned keeping in mind circular
▪ Feedback mechanism will help
environment as well as company:
▪ Recycling will result in lesser strain on
dwindling resources
▪ Raw material usage will go down and by-
products will help in reducing costs for
the company
▪ Stakeholders include businesses, end
consumers, suppliers, producers and
▪ Government has the responsibility to
lead from the front by designing policies
conducive to circular economy
(sustainable future, less dependence on
other economies)
▪ Following this, companies need to
innovate to improve resource
productivity (triple bottom line)
▪ Finally, consumers also need to respond
to these changes and affect changes in
their lifestyles to making greener cost-
effective choices everyday
Functional Integration of Circular Economy

▪ Moving from linear to circular

economy requires strategies
to improve products lifespan
▪ A closed loop system will
involve useful application of
materials by recycling and