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 The main task of auto leveling is to eliminate deviations in

 To control the consistency of output from a process by
deliberately altering the input.
 Aimed at achieving the minimum possible variations in the
linear density of output sliver
 To eliminate the Short, Medium and Long term variations in
the sliver.
The autolevellers are classified on the basis of
 Spectrum of length variation it controls

 Short term : 0.25 to 2.5 m

 Medium term : 2.5 – 25 m
 Long term : 25 – 250 m
 Very long term : >250 m
 Principle of operation

 Open loop

 Closed loop

 Mixed loop

A measuring sensor is provided in the region of the in

feed for continuous detection of the actual value (volume)
– mechanically, optically, pneumatically, or otherwise.

A regulator compares the result with the set reference

value, amplifies the difference signal, and feeds it to an
adjusting device (actuator), which then finally converts
the impulse into a mechanical adjustment.
The principle of open-loop control; A, measuring sensor; B,
store; C, amplifier; D, adjusting device; E, adjustment point;
F, set-value input
It’s used for correction of short-term variations

Input material variation is measured

Signal is compared to a reference signal

control unit measures the difference

control unit sends a signal to a draft control unit

indicating the necessary action to be taken.
Control by this chain of steps requires an additional
element, namely a storage device.

This additional requirement represents a second

disadvantage of open-loop control in addition to the
lack of self-monitoring.

There is a third disadvantage, since very exact values of

the adjustment are required at all times.
The open loop system results in a quicker response time
to the deliberate changes, since the lag time of the
process is avoided.

There is no feedback from the output to ensure that

corrections made achieve minimum variation of the
output characteristics.
The measuring sensor is usually arranged in the
delivery region, i.e. downstream from the adjusting

In contrast to open loop control, the sensing point is

located in front of the controlling point.
 It’s used for correcting long-term variation
The principle of closed-loop control; A, measuring sensor;
C, amplifier; D, adjusting device; F, set-value input; G,
dead-time distance
Autoleveling in carding
In modern carding machines combination of Open-
loop & Closed loop autoleveling is used for controlling
short & long term variations.
1 Input signal obtained by measuring the thickness of the matt
being fed to the card.

2 Input signal from the sliver delivery rollers.

3 Input signal from the light sensor in the A 70 chute.

SCU control unit.

A) Control for the drive of the feed rollers in the A 70 chute.

B) Inverter controlled drive to vary the feed roller speed

according to the measured matt thickness and the sliver
output signal.
 sensor
it contains
- pneumatic
tongue and groove roller

 data convertor
 control element
Carding levelling
 The total volume of all slivers is measured at the in
feed and adjustment is effected with the appropriate
time delay in the main drafting zone, i.e. the extent of
the change is retained in a storage device until the
measured deviation arrives at the drafting point.
 Detection is usually carried out mechanically (rollers
with grooves, bores or steps) or by capacitive sensors.
 This system permits very precise leveling of very short

 A second advantage is the ability to measure far greater

sliver masses due to the lower in-feed speed
(corresponding to the amount of draft). Recording
becomes more precise.

 In practice, draw frame leveling using open-loop

control is now predominant
Autoleveler Operation

Heavy place in slivers from creel.

Scanning rolls sense the heavy

place before the draft zone.

Autoleveler adjusts the main

draft to equalize the heavy place.

In this system, the evenness of the sliver delivered is

measured rather than the in feed sliver, as is the case
with open loop control.

In contrast to the open-loop control system, where the

adjusting point is located after the measuring point,
the adjusting point in the closed-loop control system is
located behind the measuring point
Control point:

 The control can be exercised either in the front or back

zone, through adjustment of draft.

 Adjusting the draft in front zone by regulating the speed

of middle roller is preferred.

 While manipulating the draft in back zone, the danger of

draft falling in stick-slip zone of drafting exist which may
cause additional irregularity.
In a particular zone, the draft change can be brought
about by either changing feed or delivery speed.

A change in delivery speed would result a change in

production, hence feed roller speed is always
Correction Length:

 If there is a sudden deviation from the set volume as the

material passes through, a corresponding signal is sent to
a regulating device to correct the fault.

 Owing to the mass inertia of the system, compensation

cannot be effected suddenly, but must be carried out by
gradual adjustment.

 A certain time (the correction time: I ) elapses before the

sliver delivered has returned to the set volume.
During this time, faulty sliver is still being produced, although
the deviation is being steadily reduced. The total length that
departs from the set value is referred to as the correction length
 The term “correction length” is used to describe the efficiency
of a leveling device.

 The current interpretation is: “The correction length is the

length of the product which would be produced when leveling
a rectangular deviation of the product”.

 The length therefore refers to an amplitude of the fault of 1%.

 As they cannot be checked in the spinning mill, the quality of

the delivered sliver is usually taken as the standard of
comparison, and sliver evenness can be determined by any
evenness tester.
The correction length depends upon
 Inertia of the regulating system and hence on its design.
 Delivery speed
 Draft
 Extent of mass variation of sliver from the set value.
 Sense of change of mass i.e. whether it is from
 Normal level to lighter side
 Lighter level to Normal side
 Normal level to heavier side
 Heavier level to normal side
 If a system takes ‘t’ sec to level a certain percent increase
in mass variation of a sliver that is being delivered at V
m/min, the correction length (l) would be

Correction length (l) = 100 V t mm


Two important parameters for quality leveling are

Leveling action point (LAP – time of correction)

Leveling intensity (LI)

Leveling Intensity (LI):

 Levelling Intensity is to decide the amount of draft change

required to correct feed variation.

 The correlation between mass and volume for different fibres

is not same. Therefore the levelling intensity may be different
for different fibres.

 Levelling intensity is selected based on the following trial.

Wrapping of the delivered sliver should be checked with "n",
"n+1", "n-1" sliver at the feeding side.
 Produce 100 m of sliver with normal doubling (say 6)

 Produce 100 m of sliver keeping one sliver off (i.e. 5) and then
another 100 m with one extra sliver ( i.e. 7). This will simulate
a situation of light and heavy feed.
 Each of sliver produced, should be checked for count
determination based on 5 - 10 samples.
 A% = ((gms/mt(N-1) - gms/mt(N))/ gms/mt(N) ) x 100

 A% = ((gms/mt(N+1) - gms/mt(N))/ gms/mt(N)) x 100

 A % should be below 0.5%.

 Most of the auto levelers can correct 25% of feed variation.

Levelling Action Point (LAP – Correction Time):

Both feed variation sensing and correction are being

done when the machine is running (continuous
process) at two different places(i.e. sensing is at one
place and correction is at an other place).

Hence the calculated correction should be done on the

corresponding defective material. This is decided by
Levelling action Point.
LAP timing

Sliver deflection
influences LAP
Leveling Action too soon
enter higher number.
The time required for the defective material to reach
the correction point should be known and correction
should be done at the right time.

Levelling action point depends upon

 break draft

 main draft

 roller setting &

 delivery speed
Advantages of high performance levelling:
 reducing count variations;

 fewer short-term mass variations in the yarn (CV %);

 improving the coefficient of variation of yarn strength (CV %

 fewer yarn imperfections (IPI and Classimat);

 improving the efficiency of roving frame and spinning machine by

reducing the ends down rates;
 fewer cuts on the winding machine.

 reduction of ends down rates in weaving preparation and


 even appearance of the finished cloth;

 reducing the cost for claims by eliminating a remarkable

number of faults.
Norms for U% & CV%

Rating CV% (1 U%
Good O.5 Coarse & medium Fine counts
Carded 2.25 2.5
Average 0.75
Combed 1.75 2.0
Poor 1.0
Influence of machine & process parameters on

The short term irregularity in the processed material and

yarn is generally by assessing the Uster U%.
The U% is a measure of the variation in the weight of
pieces of
 20 mm in the case of sliver and

 12 mm in the case of roving and

 8 mm in the case of yarn


 Insufficient opening of cotton and wide variation in tuft


 Use of excessive soft waste in the mixing

 Malfunctioning of the length measuring motion

 Cage choked with dust and dirt on their surface

 Ineffective working of feed regulating motion.

Card sliver U%:
The contribution of card sliver evenness to the count
variation is about 10%.
The norms for card sliver U% are

 SHP – 4.0%

 HP – 3.5%

 VHP – 3%

As a routine control, the cards should be checked once in

a month for sliver irregularity.
U% influencing factors in Carding machine :

1. Doffer wire condition – Doffer grinding can be done

2. Tongue setting – Transfer to be set right

3. Web tension draft – optimum web draft to be selected for that

particular speed in the transfer zone

4. Drives – Drive transmission to be perfected ( no loose belts, no

slippage, minimum play between gears)

5. Feed Draft – optimum feed draft between lap-to-feed roller or

chute-to-feed roller

6. Trumpet/ condenser selection as per hank of sliver

7. Variation in flat speed between cards processing the
same mixing

8. Obstruction in the movement of aprons during doffing

in modern cards.

9. Bent/damaged back and front plates.

10. Difference in drafts between cards

Comber sliver U%:

 As in the case of card sliver, a high irregularity in

comber sliver could have a detrimental effect on the
yarn count variation.

 Norms for comber sliver U% are

Rating Sliver Hank
0.12 to 0.16 > 0.16
Good 3.0 3.5
Average 3.5 4.0
Poor 4.0 4.5
1. Difference in waste extraction between heads

2. Variation in settings between back detaching roller and

3. Unicomb choked with seed coats or immature cotton.

4. Wider setting between unicomb and brush

5. Improper needle spacing, broken or bent needles

6. Variation in detaching roller diameter and improper

timing of top combs
Draw frame sliver U%:

 Control of draw frame sliver irregularity is one of the

important points in reducing yarn count variation.

 The short term variation in draw frame sliver contributes

to 50% of the lea count variation.

 An uneven draw frame sliver would increase both the lea

strength variation and end breaks in spinning.
Norms for combed draw frame sliver U%:

Rating Sliver Hank

0.12 to 0.16 > 0.16
Good 2.0 2.5
Average 2.5 3.0
Poor 3.0 3.5
Influence of draw frame sliver U%:
 An increase in draw frame sliver U% from 3% to 5% will
increase the roving U% from 5 to 6.4%.
 An increase in draw frame sliver U% from 3% to 5% will
increase the yarn U% by 0.5%.
 The count cv% shows an increase with increasing draw
frame sliver irregularity.
 The lea strength variation is significantly greater at very
high levels of draw frame irregularity
Factors affecting the draw frame sliver U%

Setting between the rollers:

Roller settings based on span length (now-a-days based

on AFIS 5% length) is useful.

Such settings are known to confer improvements in the

performance of preparatory and spinning machines as
well as in sliver & yarn quality.
Draw frame Roller settings (nip to nip in mm)

Front Back
Breaker 5% AFIS Length 5% AFIS Length + 4
Finisher 5% AFIS Length + 2 5% AFIS Length + 6
Break, Web & Creel Drafts:

 The break draft is determined by a number of factors such

as the fibre properties of raw material, type of draw
frame, first or second passage etc.

Draw frame Carded count Combed Man-made

passage count fibres

Breaker 1.7 1.3 1.7

Finisher 1.3 1.3 1.3
 The web tension draft , which is governed by the type of
material used must be slightly lower at the breaker
drawing than at the finisher.

 Excessive web tension draft would lead to an increase in

the sliver irregularity as well as lea count variation.

Count Web draft

Upto 24s 0.96 – 0.97
24s – 36s 0.98 – 1.00
Above 36s 1.00 – 1.02
Man-made fibres 1.00 – 1.02
Trumpet size:
 Use of a proper trumpet size helps to obtain a sliver of
sufficient compactness necessary for subsequent processing.

Sliver hank Carded counts

Breaker Finisher

0.25 & above 3.0 2.5

0.18 – 0.24 3.0 2.5

0.15 – 0.17 3.5 3.0

0.12 – 0.14 3.5 3.5

 For combed counts, the diameter will be less by 0.5 mm

Machinery condition:

 The mechanical condition of the draw frame is also an

important factor determining sliver irregularity.

 Improper pressure on top rollers

 Improperly meshed or worn gear wheels

 Variation in top roller diameter.

 Under normal working conditions, roving process
contributes for about 15% of the yarn irregularity.

Rating Roving hank

1.2 to 1.6 > 1.6
Good 3.5 3.8
Average 4.0 4.3
Poor 4.5 4.8
 Periodic irregularity in roving affects lea strength variation
adversely. The effect is more pronounced in fine counts.

 Short term irregularity in roving (U%) influences medium

term variation in yarn which is mainly responsible for end
breaks in ring spinning.

 Simplex machine should be checked once in 15 days for

roving irregularity (U%).
Factors influencing Roving U%:
1. Setting between the rollers
 Front & middle zone settings are fixed.

 Back zone settings should lie within 2.5% span length +

12 to 15 mm.
 For two zone drafting Effective length + 8 to 10 mm

2. Total draft & Break draft

 Decided based on factors like type of drafting system,
quality of back material & condition of machine.
Count (Ne) Draft Count (Ne) Draft
20s 9.0 70s 13.5
30s, 40s & 50s 10.0 80s 14.5
69s 12.0 90s & 100s 15.0

Break draft has to maintained in the range of 1.08 to

1.3 for satisfactory performance
3. Wrong size of sliver guides

 Selection of sliver guides of proper size helps to condense

the sliver effectively and reduce uneven rate of feeding

Particulars Sliver hank

0.09 to 0.12 0.121 to 0.14 0.141 to 0.17 0.171 to 0.2

Inlet condenser 18 x 6 or 16 x 4 15 x 3 12 x 2.5 8x2


Middle 14 or 11 11 0r 9 9 or 6 9 or 6
condenser (mm)
Hank of sliver Hank of roving Size of floating Size of spacer
(Ne) (Ne) condenser (mm) (mm)

0.09 – 0.12 0.5 – 1.0 11 – 18 6–9

1.1 – 1.6 9 – 16 5.5 – 8
1.7 – 2.5 7.5 – 14 5–7

0.121 – 0.14 0.6 – 1.0 11 – 16 6–9

1.1 – 1.6 9 – 14 5.5 – 8
1.7 – 2.5 7.5 – 11 5–7

0.141 – 0.17 0.7 – 1.2 9 -14 5.5 – 8

1.3 – 1.6 7.5 – 11 5.5 – 8
1.7 – 3.0 6–9 5–7

0.171 – 0.2 1.0 – 1.6 6–9 5–7

1.7 – 3.0 6 – 7.5 5-7
4. Slipped or Missing aprons

Spindles running without bottom aprons create

uneven yarn because the materials are being
stretched in loose state and without any guidance.

Irregularity of roving will increase by 2 to 2.5 U%.

5. Top roller loading, Shore hardness, and improper spacers
Position Material
Cotton Man-made
Front line 22 25.0
Middle line 12 – 13 16.5
Back line 12 - 13 16.5

 A shore hardness of 80o proves to be ideal both for cotton

as well as for man-made fibres.

6. Mechanical condition of machine

Yarn U%:
1. Roller settings

 In order to avoid the creation of drafting waves and to

reduce U% of yarn, proper roller settings must be

Count group Roller settings (mm)

Up to 20s 55
21s to 60s 60
60s & above 65
2. Top roller pressure & Shore hardness

 Insufficient loading of top rollers leads to erratic

movement of the fibres due to fibre slip between the
drafting rollers.

 This, in turn, will lead to high level of short term

unevenness of yarn.

 Top roller pressure of 18 kgs improves the U% and

reduces the thick & thin places.
Position Pressure (kg)
Front line 16 - 18
Middle line 10 – 12
Back line 12 – 14

 Use of softer cots (shore hardness of 60o to 75o) generally

improves yarn quality by reducing slip between the cot and
the bottom fluted roller.
 Soft cots with a top roller pressure of 18 kg in counts below
50s and 15 kg in counts finer than 50s will result in improved
yarn quality.
3. Draft distribution
 The total draft and break draft employed in spinning
influence the amount of irregularity added in spinning
and they depend on the quality of roving and condition of
the ring frame.
 Break draft in ring frame is mainly to break the mild twist
in the roving.
 While using higher break draft, the back zone settings
should be wider to obtain optimum performance.
4. Apron spacing

 Cradle opening contributes to the tune of 60 to 80%

on the incidence of thick and thin places in the yarn.

 Wider cradle opening, lesser will be the control of

fibres between aprons leading to thin places in the

 Narrower the cradle opening, greater will be the strain

to the fibres between the aprons, leading to undrafted
ends in the yarn.
5. Roving twist

 There is a high degree of interaction between apron

spacing, break draft and roving twist.

 Closer spacing between the aprons will improve the

yarn irregularity.

 Too close setting will leads to un drafting. So we have

to increase the break draft / reducing the twist level in
the input roving,
 The most uniform strand of material which our present
machinery can produce is one which the fibre ends are laid
in a random order in the sliver, roving and yarn – this is an
ideal yarn

 Even this ideal strand would have some irregularity in the


 Thus, for a particular type of fibre and count of yarn, there

is an irregularity limit which cannot be improved upon by
the present machinery – limiting irregularity.
 By calculating this limit irregularity and then
measuring actual irregularity, we can judge the
spinning performance.

 Index of irregularity I = CV
CV lim

 CV = actual measured irregularity

 CV lim = calculated limit irregularity

 I = 1 for best possible yarn

 I > 1 more irregular yarn.

 For cotton fibres, the limit irregularity is given by,

 CV lim = 100 = 100 (Tf / T)½

 The higher the number of fibres, the lower the

 Fine fibres produce a more regular yarn for a given
count than coarser fibres.
Fiber Micronaire Vs Yarn Evenness

Lower the micronaire, lower U%

Yarn Evenness

Coarse Fine
Fibre Fineness

The evenness can be lowered by using fine fibers. The

theoretical background is Martindale’s formula:

CV(Lim) = 100/√ n

CVlim = Limit irregularity

n = Number of fibers in the cross-section C

Fiber Micronaire Vs Yarn Evenness

Machine induced irregularity.

Yarn Evenness

Measured evenness
Natural irregularity due to
Nature of cotton.This is the
b minimum Cv m we can
Limit irregularity
Fibres in cross section

Irregularity Index = CVmass/CV(lim) = b/a

Irregularity Index is the ratio between the evenness values obtained

under practical condition and limit irregularity.

Finer the fibre, more number of fibres in the cross section and lesser limit