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2

Types of Fire
Apparatus
2

Objectives (1 of 3)

• Describe which components are needed to


classify a piece of fire apparatus as a
pumper.
• Describe which components are needed to
classify a piece of fire apparatus as an
initial attack fire apparatus.
• Describe which components are needed to
classify a piece of fire apparatus as a
mobile water supply.
2

Objectives (2 of 3)

• Describe which components are needed to


classify a piece of fire apparatus as an aerial
apparatus.
• Describe which components are needed to
classify a piece of fire apparatus as a quint.
• Describe which components are needed to
classify a piece of fire apparatus as a special
service fire apparatus.
2

Objectives (3 of 3)

• Describe which components are needed to


classify a piece of fire apparatus as a
mobile foam apparatus.
2

Introduction
• Varied nature of day-to-day calls
– No single apparatus is adequate for all calls.
– Specialized equipment is based on function
and capabilities.
• The driver/operator should know the
capabilities of each apparatus and what
each equipment brings to the emergency
scene.
2

Fire Apparatus Requirements (1 of 2)

• Working with a manufacturer


– Many apparatus available
– Jurisdiction purchasing the apparatus must
convey the following specifications:
• Specific performance requirements
• Maximum number of fire fighters to ride on the
apparatus
• Specific electrical loads required
– Jurisdiction must conduct ongoing training.
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Fire Apparatus Requirements (2 of 2)

• Manufacturer must describe the


apparatus.
– Estimated weight, wheel base, turning radius,
principal dimensions, transmission, axle
ratios, and capacity of aerial platform
– Jurisdiction and manufacturer must work
together to construct the apparatus.
– NFPA 1901 defines all documents and
components.
2

Water on the Fire Apparatus (1 of 4)

• Water is a major component of fire attack.


• To get water on the fire, water must be
pressurized by a fire pump.
– NFPA 1901 defines a fire pump as a water pump
mounted on an apparatus for firefighting.
– Fire pump must be capable of delivering a minimum
capacity of 250 GPM (1000 L/min) at 150 psi (1000
kPa) net pump pressure.
2

Water on the Fire Apparatus (2 of 4)

© JoLin/ShutterStock, Inc.
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Water on the Fire Apparatus (3 of 4)

• NFPA 1901 defines the requirements of


fire apparatus equipped with water tanks.
– Depending on the type of apparatus, the
water tank may hold hundreds or thousands
of gallons of water.
– All water tanks should be constructed with
noncorrosive materials.
2

Water on the Fire Apparatus (4 of 4)

© Peter Kim/ShutterStock, Inc.


2

Pumper (1 of 5)

• “Bread-and-butter” of fire service


– Secures water source and extinguishes fire
• Most common type of fire apparatus
• Part of almost every department
• Responds to small incidents
• Main source of fire attack for larger fires
involving structures
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Pumper (2 of 5)

• Critical for initial extinguishment because it


brings initial water supply and tools
• Pumper size
– Lengths of 30’ (9 m) or longer
– Can hold 1250 gal (4710 L) of water
• Per NFPA 1901, pumper should be equipped
with a permanently mounted pump with a
minimum rating of 750 GPM (2800 L/min)
2

Pumper (3 of 5)

• Each department determines the fires


each apparatus will respond to and the
appropriate pump capacity.
– Needs its own water supply to sustain
operation
– Can carry 1000+ gal (3784+ L) of water, but
must carry 300+ gal (1135+ L)
– Departments determine water needs and
adjust the tank size accordingly.
2

Pumper (4 of 5)

• Pumper carries water, tools, and


equipment.
– Must carry at least one straight ladder (with roof
hooks), one extension ladder, and one attic ladder
– NFPA 1901 requires fire hoses and nozzles.
• 800’ (240 m) of 2½” (65 mm) supply/attack hose
• 400’ (120 m) of 1½” (38 mm), 1¾” (45 mm), or 2” (52
mm) attack hose
• One combination spray nozzle capable of delivering
200 GPM (750 L/min) minimum
2

Pumper (5 of 5)

• NFPA 1901 also requires:


– Two combination spray nozzles capable of
delivering 95 GPM (360 L/min) minimum
– One playpipe, with shut-off and 1” (25 mm),
1⅛” (29 mm), and 1¼” (32 mm) tips
• Pumper must have 40+ ft3 (1.1+ m3) of
enclosed weather-resistant compartments
to store equipment.
2

Initial Attack Fire Apparatus (1 of 6)

• Used like a pumper, but with different


specifications
– Not as common as a pumper, but used by
many departments
• Smaller version of the pumper and more
maneuverable, especially off road
• Equipped with four-wheel drive and used
to fight fires in urban and rural settings
2

Initial Attack Fire Apparatus (2 of 6)

• Many are built on a commercial chassis


platform with a custom-built body.
– Makes many parts easier to maintain and repair
because parts can be found at local auto parts
stores
• Some are custom built by a private company.
• Be aware of the potential for overloading the
chassis with too much weight and creating a
safety hazard.
2

Initial Attack Fire Apparatus (3 of 6)

• NFPA 1901 states that the initial attack


apparatus must:
– Be equipped with a fire pump as defined in
NFPA 1901
– Have the minimum rated capacity of 250 GPM
(1000 L/min)
– Have a water tank with a minimum certified
capacity of 200 gal (750 L)
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Initial Attack Fire Apparatus (4 of 6)

• The apparatus has pumping capabilities,


so a hose is required to expel water.
• Must carry a minimum of 15’ (4.5 m) of soft
suction hose or 20’ (6 m) of hard suction
hose with a strainer
2

Initial Attack Fire Apparatus (5 of 6)

• NFPA requires these hoses and nozzles:


– 300’ (90 m) of 2½” (65 mm) fire supply hose
– 400’ (120 m) of 1½” (38 mm), 1¾” (45 mm), or
2” (52 mm) attack fire hose
– Two combination spray nozzles with a
minimum capacity of 95 GPM (360 L/min)
2

Initial Attack Fire Apparatus (6 of 6)

• Needs storage compartments


– NFPA 1901 mandates 22+ ft3 (0.62+ m3) of
enclosed weather-resistant compartments for
equipment.
– Compartment space is a custom body that is
added to a commercial cab and chassis.
• Initial attack fire apparatus is used to bring
equipment to the fire scene.
– Most tools are the same as found on a pumper.
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Mobile Water Supply Apparatus (1 of 3)

• Many rural communities do not have


hydrants or readily accessible water.
– Fire fighters need apparatus with large-
capacity water tanks.
• Mobile water supply apparatus are defined
in NFPA 1901.
– May be designed with or without a fire pump
– If it has a fire pump, it is designed to carry a
large capacity of water to the fire scene.
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Mobile Water Supply Apparatus (2 of 3)

• Mobile supply apparatus with fire pump


carries 15+’ (4.5+ m) of soft suction hose or
20’ (6 m) of hard suction hose with a strainer.
• Fire hose and nozzles are also needed.
– Must have 200+’ (60+ m) of 2½+” (65+ mm) supply
hose
– Mobile water supply apparatus with fire pump
requires 400’ (120 m) of 1½” (45 mm) or 2” (52
mm) attack hose and two combination spray
nozzles with 95+ GPM (360+ L/min) capacity.
2

Mobile Water Supply Apparatus (3 of 3)

• Equipment storage is very important.


– Must have 20+ ft3 (0.57+ m3) of enclosed
weather-resistant compartment space for
equipment
– Minor equipment must be organized and
mounted in brackets or compartments.
2

Aerial Fire Apparatus (1 of 6)

• 1830: Abraham Wivell, an English fire fighter,


created the first fly ladder.
– Reached the second story with main ladder and
extended the next two flies to the upper floors
• Late 19th century: Scott-Uda designed height
extension ladders.
– Used eight extensions with weights and
balances
– Short-lived because many died due to collapses
2

Aerial Fire Apparatus (2 of 6)

• 1868: Daniel Hayes successfully patterned


an 85’ hand-cranked aerial ladder.
– Popularity of mechanics, pneumatics, and
hydraulics started the race for a perfect aerial
ladder.
• Seagraves introduced the first aerial truck.
– 1916: American LaFrance used air
compression to raise ladders.
2

Aerial Fire Apparatus (3 of 6)

• Today’s ladder trucks are equipped with


computerized aerial ladders that extend for
110’.
• Aerial fire apparatus are defined in NFPA
1901.
– Apparatus can be configured in many ways:
aerial ladder, elevating platform, water tower,
or water pump.
2

Aerial Fire Apparatus (4 of 6)

© SVLumagraphica/ShutterStock, Inc.
2

Aerial Fire Apparatus (5 of 6)

• Aerial apparatus must have 115+’ (35+ m)


of ground ladders supplied and installed by
the manufacturer.
• Ladders that should be provided:
– One attic ladder
– Two straight ladders (with folding roof hooks)
– Two extension ladders
• Must include at least 40 ft3 (1.1 m3) of
enclosed compartment space
2

Aerial Fire Apparatus (6 of 6)

• Commonly known as “toolboxes on


wheels”
– Carry more equipment to the fire scene than
other apparatus
– Designed to assist fire fighters with support
functions on the fire ground
– Do not carry hoses or nozzles because they
are designed for support functions
2

Quint Fire Apparatus (1 of 6)

• 1912: Metz of Germany patented the first


quint.
• 1935: In the United States, American
LaFrance built the first quint.
• 1940: Seagraves followed with its own
quint.
2

Quint Fire Apparatus (2 of 6)

• “Quint” is short for “quintuple” and has five


functions
– Pump
– Water tank
– Fire hose storage
– Aerial
– Ground ladders
2

Quint Fire Apparatus (3 of 6)

• Quint was very popular until the 1990s.


– Budget cuts made departments reconsider
the use of multipurpose quints.
– Many believed the purchase of a quint meant
the department had a double-functioning
apparatus (pumper and ladder).
– Quint works as a pump or aerial ladder truck.
2

Quint Fire Apparatus (4 of 6)

• NFPA 1901 specifies what an apparatus


needs to be defined as a quint.
– Fire pump requirements must be met and have a
rated capacity of 1000 GPM (4000 L/m).
– Equipped with an aerial ladder with a
permanently installed waterway, plus a water tank
with a certified capacity of 300+ gal (1100+ L)
– Carry 85+’ (26+ m) of ground ladders including
extension ladder, straight ladder with roof hooks,
and attic ladder
2

Quint Fire Apparatus (5 of 6)

Photo supplied by PBCFR


2

Quint Fire Apparatus (6 of 6)

• Quint’s hose is a necessity.


– 15+’ (4.5+ m) of soft suction with compatible
couplings or 20’ (6 m) of hard suction hose
with strainer
– Purchaser specifies whether hard or soft
suction is necessary.
– Quint must carry certain fire hose and
nozzles.
2

Special Service Fire Apparatus (1 of 3)

• Designed for a particular purpose and does


not fit into other categories
– Hazardous materials and heavy technical rescue
• Most special service apparatus provide
compartment space for unique equipment.
– If equipped with a fire pump, pump shall meet
requirements in NFPA 1901.
– If equipped with ground ladders, they shall meet
requirements in NFPA 1931.
2

Special Service Fire Apparatus (2 of 3)


2

Special Service Fire Apparatus (3 of 3)

• Required to have more compartment


space than other apparatus because its
primary function is to supply certain
equipment to the incident
– Must have 120+ ft3 (3.4+ m3) of enclosed,
weather-resistant compartments for
equipment
2

Mobile Foam Fire Apparatus (1 of 4)

• Apparatus with permanently mounted fire


pump, foam proportioning system, and
foam concentrate tank(s)
– Primary purpose is to control and extinguish
flammable and combustible liquid fires in storage
tanks and other flammable liquid spills.
– Delivers foam immediately without requiring fire
fighters to attach special containers or change
nozzles
2

Mobile Foam Fire Apparatus (2 of 4)

Courtesy of Roy Robichaux, ConocoPhillips Alliance Refinery


2

Mobile Foam Fire Apparatus (3 of 4)

• Apparatus must be equipped with a fire


pump with a rated capacity of 750+ GPM
(3000+ L/min) or an industrial supply pump.
• Foam proportioning system is needed.
• Apparatus must be equipped with foam
concentrate tanks meeting NFPA
requirements and a capacity of 500+ gal
(2000+ L).
2

Mobile Foam Fire Apparatus (4 of 4)

• Must carry 15+’ (4.5+ m) of soft suction


hose with compatible couplings or 20’ (6 m)
of hard suction hose with strainer
• Equipment storage includes 40+ ft3 (1.13+
m3) of enclosed weather-resistant
compartments.
2

Summary (1 of 3)
• A fire pump is vital in getting water from
the fire apparatus, through the hose, and
onto the fire.
• A pumper is the most common fire
apparatus and found in almost every
department.
• A pumper is used on small fires and is the
main source of fire attack for larger fires
involving structures.
2

Summary (2 of 3)
• Initial attack apparatus are used like
pumpers but are more maneuverable,
especially off road.
• Aerial apparatus are equipped with an
aerial ladder, elevating platform, and water
tower to support firefighting and rescue
operations.
2

Summary (3 of 3)
• Quint functions: pump, water tank, fire
hose storage, aerial, ground ladders
• Special service apparatus are designed for
a certain purpose and do not fit into other
categories.
• A foam apparatus has a pump, foam
system, and foam concentrate tank(s).