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BUILDING MATERIALS – II

PAINTS & VARNISHES


COMMON TERMINOLOGY
 PAINTS: Liquid surface coating which forms a thin film (60 – 150µ)
on the painted surface. Used for wood, metal, plaster, etc.

 VARNISHES: Nearly homogenous solution of resin in oil,


alcohol or turpentine. Oil dries with time leaving behind a
transparent resin film on surface. Used primarily for wood

 DISTEMPER: Made of white chalk as base and the solution is of


same consistency as water. Most suitable for plastered and white
washed surfaces

 ENAMEL: Base of zinc oxide, etc. ground in varnish. Dries quickly


and has hard glossy surface
COMMON TERMINOLOGY

PAINTED SURFACE VARNISHED SURFACE

DISTEMPERED ENAMELLING
PAINTS
PAINT-IDEAL CHARACTERISTICS
 Good spreading power/ high coverage: Max. area to be covered with
min. quantity of paint

 Good workability: Easily and freely applied on surface

 Should spread as uniform thin film

 Fairly cheap & economical

 Should dry in reasonable time and not too rapidly

 Sufficient elasticity to remain unaffected by expansion/ contraction or


weathering action

 Color should be maintained for long time

 Should not affect health of workers


PAINT-FUNCTIONS
 Protection of surface from weathering actions, liquids,
fumes, gases, etc.

 Prevents decay and corrosion of metal

 Lends good appearance to surface

 Provides smooth surface for easy cleaning


PAINTS - CONSTITUENTS
CONSTITUE
DESCRIPTION & FUNCTION EXAMPLES
NT
-White lead
- Solid substance which forms bulk of paint
-Red lead
- Determines characteristics of paint
-Zinc white
-Makes it opaque
BASE -Oxides of iron
-Imparts durability to surface
-Aluminium
-Posses binding properties which reduces the
powder
shrinkage cracks after drying
-Lithophone
-Liquid substances which hold ingredients of paint in
liquid suspension -Linseed oil
VEHICLE/ -Helps it spread over surface evenly & uniformly as a -Tung oil
BINDER thin layer -Poppy oil
-Imparts durability, toughness, water proofing -Nut oil
properties and resistance to weathering
-Chemicals added to paint to accelerate the process of -Litharge
drying -Red lead – best
DRIERS/
-Absorbs oxygen from air, transfers it to the VEHICLE, for steel & metal
PLASTICIZER
which in turn, hardens & dries work
S
-Quantity limited to 8% as excess amounts affects -Sulphate of
elasticity of paint leading to flaking manganese
PAINTS - CONSTITUENTS
CONSTITU
DESCRIPTION & FUNCTION EXAMPLES
ENT
TINT OF
PIGMENTS
PAINT
Graphite, lamp black, ivory
BLACK
black, vegetable black
-Used to hide surface imperfections & BLUE Indigo, prussian blue
to impart color
COLORING BROWN Burnt umber, raw umber
-Pigments available in form of
PIGMENTS Chrome green, copper
powders GREEN
-CLASSIFICATION: Natural & Artificial sulphate
Carmine, red lead, vermilion
RED
red
Chrome yellow, raw sienna,
YELLOW
yellow ochre, zinc chrome
-Oils used to make the paint thin to
increase workability
-Also helps paints to penetrate -Turpentine oil – most common
through porous surfaces -Petroleum
SOLVENTS
-Not generally used in finishing coats -Spirit
or exposed surfaces as it has -Naptha
tendency to impair/ damage firmness
of paint
-Bring down overall cost -Barium sulphate – best adulterant
ADULTERAN -Reduce weight -Calcium carbonate
WATER PAINTS/ WATER WASH & COLOR WASH
 Fresh slaked lime is
thoroughly mixed with
water in a tub and
screened through fine
clean cloth
 Glue, dissolved in water is
added to this mixture
 The surface is then
cleaned and white wash is
applied
 A white wash when mixed
with coloring pigments -
COLOR WASH
 Lime keeps away germs –
good from hygiene
consideration
 Usually recommended for
low-medium class houses
DISTEMPER
 BASE: White chalk
 Emulsion is as thin as water
 Some coloring pigments & glue are
added
 Available in powder & paste forms
 Oil bound distempers also available
 Substantially cheaper than paints
CHARACTERISTICS
 Coatings are thick & more brittle as
compared to paints
FLAKING OF
 Workable, easy in application, but less DISTEMPER FROM
durable WALL
 Being porous, can be applied to newly
plastered surfaces as well
 Unsatisfactory in damp conditions/
locations
CEMENT PAINT
 BASE: White or Portland cement
 Available in dry form
 Other pigments, driers, etc. are added
 Thinned with water during application
 Proper curing is necessary for strength and durability
 For good results, aqueous solution of sodium silicate and zinc sulphate is
applied as primary coat on the surface to be painted
CHARACTERISTICS
 Water proof and durable
 Used on exterior surfaces of buildings
 When mixed with linseed oil, it is also used over corrugated iron sheets
 It is desirable to be applied on rough surfaces as adhesion power is low on
smooth surfaces
EMULSION & ANTI-CORROSIVE PAINTS
EMULSION PAINTS
 Contains binding materials like polyvinyl acetate, synthetic resins, etc.
 Easy to apply
 Dries quickly in 1.5-2 hrs
 Color is retained for long time
 Surface of paint is tough and can be cleaned by washing with water

ANTI-CORROSIVE PAINTS
 Consists of oil as vehicle and a strong drier
 Pigments: red lead, sublimed blue lead, zinc oxide, iron oxide, zinc
chromate
 Mixed with some quantity of very fine sand
 Should have quick drying and hardening properties
 Used for preservation of structural steel work against adverse weather
conditions & acid fumes
 Impede corrosion by reducing direct access of air and water to the metal
DAMP PROOFING FINISHES
ASBESTOS PAINT
VARNISHES
VARNISH
 Homogenous solution of resin in oil,
alchohol or turpentine.

 Type of solvent depends on type of resin


used

 Oil dries with time and other solvents


evaporate leaving behind a transparent
layer of resin film over the surface

OBJECTIVES OF VARNISHING

 Brightens the appearance of grain of wood

 Renders brilliancy to painted surface

 Protects painted / unpainted surface from


atmospheric elements
VARNISH - CHARACTERISTICS
 It should render the surface glossy

 It should dry fast and present a finished surface which is uniform and
pleasing in nature

 Color of varnish should not fade away when exposed to atmosphere

 Protecting film should be tough, hard and durable

 It should not shrink or crack after drying


VARNISH - TYPES
OIL VARNISHES
FRENCH POLISH
 Type of spirit varnish

 Prepared by dissolving resin in


methylated spirit in room
temperature

 Used on hard wood


substances to hide grain
defects

 The surface is made smooth


by rubbing

 Filler mixed with desired wood


is prepared in paste form and
applied over cracks, holes,
etc.

 The surface is rubbed after


drying and dusted off