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Diseases and Disorders of the

Circulatory System
By group 10
Lalla Muthohharoh
Sarah Rahmawati Nurmanita
Rizka Amelia Putri

Biology Education A 2015


FMIPA-UNJ
2017
Arteriosclerosis
► Arteriosclerosis: Artery
walls harden; caused by
a diet high in fat and
cholesterol.
► Causes:
 Smoking
 Diabetes
 High Blood Pressure
 High Cholesterol
 Overweight
Diseases and Disorders of the
Circulatory System
► Stroke: Happens when a cluster of blood
cells blocks blood vessels in the brain.
► Stroke Stroke is a “Brain Attack”
Diseases and Disorders of the
Circulatory System
► Prevention:
 Don’t Smoke
 Drink in moderation (21)
 Get cholesterol checked
 Exercise 30 minutes daily
 Consume a low fat diet
► Treatment:
 Medication
 Rehabilitation
Diseases of the Circulatory System
► Leukemia: Abnormal
white blood cells
 In time they may crowd
out normal white blood
cells, red blood cells, and
platelets.
Diseases and Disorders of the
Circulatory System
► Hemophilia: Blood does
not clot properly
► Prevention:
 No prevention, you are
born a hemophiliac
► Treatment:
Transfusions of blood
clotting factors.
Disorders of Circulatory System
► Atherosclerosis
 Fatty deposits (plaque) in walls of arteries

 Deposits can obstruct flow of blood which can raise blood pressure

 Increases risk of blood clots

 If clot breaks free it can obstruct blood flow to tissues.


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Diseases and Disorders of the Cardi


ovascular System
Disease Description
Anemia The blood does not have enough red blood cells
or hemoglobin to carry an adequate amount of
oxygen to the body’s cells
Aneurysm A ballooned, weakened arterial wall
Arrhythmias Abnormal heart rhythms
Carditis Inflammation of the heart
Endocarditis Inflammation of the innermost lining of the
heart, including valves
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Diseases and Disorders of the Cardi


ovascular System (cont.)
Disease Description
Myocarditis Inflammation of the muscular layer of the heart
Pericarditis Inflammation of the membranes that surround
the heart (pericardium)
Congestive Weakening of the heart over time; heart is
Heart Failure unable to pump enough blood to meet body’s
needs
Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis; narrowing of coronary arteries
Disease (CAD) caused by hardening of the fatty plaque deposits
within the arteries
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Diseases and Disorders of the Cardi


ovascular System (cont.)
Disease Description
Hypertension High blood pressure; consistent resting blood
pressure equal to or greater than 140/90 mm Hg
Murmurs Abnormal heart sounds
Myocardial Heart attack; damage to cardiac muscle due to a
Infarction lack of blood supply
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Diseases and Disorders of the Cardi


ovascular System (cont.)
Disease Description
Sickle Cell Abnormal hemoglobin causes RBCs to change
Anemia to a sickle shape; abnormal cells stick in
capillaries
Thalassemia Inherited form of anemia; defective hemoglobin
chain causes, small, pale, and short-lived RBCs
Thrombophlebitis Blood clots and inflammation develops in a vein

Varicose Veins Twisted, dilated veins


Disorders
► Disorders of the circulatory
system are very common:
 High Blood Pressure
 Heart Attack
 Stroke
► Most stem from atherosclerosis
= fatty deposits (plaque) builds
up on walls of arteries,
obstructing blood flow,
increasing blood pressure and
risk of blood clots
High Blood Pressure
► Also known as Hypertension
► Forces heart to work harder, which may weaken
or damage the heart muscle and vessels
► More likely to develop heart disease and increased
risk of heart attack and stroke
Heart Attack
►A medical emergency
► Coronary arteries (supplying heart blood)
bring oxygen and nutrients to the heart
muscle itself
► Blockage of coronary artery may damage or
kill part of heart muscle (myocardium) due
to lack of oxygen = heart attack
 Symptoms include: chest pain/pressure, feeling
of heartburn/indigestion, sudden dizziness, or
brief loss of consciousness
Stroke
► Blood clots may break free from vessels and get stuck in a
blood vessel leading to a part of the brain = stroke
► Brain cells relying on that vessel may begin to die from
lack of oxygen and brain function in that region may be
lost
► Strokes can also occur when a weakened artery in the
brain burst, flooding the area with blood
Prevention
► Cardiovascular diseases are
easy to prevent:
 Exercise – increases
respiratory system’s
efficiency
 Weight control – reduces
body fat and stress
 Sensible diet – low in
saturated fat reduces risk of
heart disease
 Not smoking – reduces risk
of heart disease