Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 43

GELOMBANG ELEKTROMAGNETIK

• Electromagnetic Waves are characterized


• Perambatan gelombang
• Tenaga dan momentum
• Refleksi dan refraksi
• Interferensi
• Difraksi
• polarisasi
Electromagnetic Waves are characterized by:

Wavelength, l [m, cm, mm, mm etc]

Frequency, f [s-1, hertz (hz), megahertz (Mhz), gigahertz (Ghz)

where: c = l f
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Time variations in charge, voltage and current in a simple Dipole Antenna
Pt. A

Pt. B

wavelength

All energy All energy


stored in stored in
electric magnetic
field field
Energy is 1) stored in E, B fields, 2) radiated as EM waves, 3) Dissipated as heat in antenna

Near antenna: Energy stored in induction fields (E, B fields) >> energy radiated

More than a few


l from antenna: Energy radiated >> energy stored in induction fields
Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

• Electric and magnetic fields contain energy,


potential energy stored in the field: uE and uB
uE: ½ 0 E2 electric field energy density
uB: (1/m0) B2 magnetic field energy density

•The energy is put into the oscillating fields by the


sources that generate them.

•This energy can then propagate to locations far


away, at the velocity of light.
Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

Energy per unit volume is B

dx
u = uE + uB  1 (  0 E 2  1 B2 )
2 m0 area
E
A

c propagation
direction
Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

Energy per unit volume is B

dx
u = uE + uB  1 (  0 E 2  1 B2 )
2 m0 area
E
A
Thus the energy, dU, in a box of
area A and length dx is
1 1
dU  ( 0 E 2  B2 ) Adx c propagation
2 m0 direction
Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

Energy per unit volume is B

dx
u = uE + uB  1 (  0 E 2  1 B2 )
2 m0 area
E
A
Thus the energy, dU, in a box of
area A and length dx is
1 1 2
dU  ( 0 E  B ) Adx
2 c propagation
2 m0 direction

Let the length dx equal cdt. Then all of this energy leaves
the box in time dt. Thus energy flows at the rate
dU 1 1 2
 ( 0 E 
2
B ) Ac
dt 2 m0
Energy Flow in Electromagnetic Waves
B
Rate of energy flow:
dx
dU c 1 2
 ( 0 E 
2
B )A
dt 2 m0 area
A
E

c propagation
direction
Energy Flow in Electromagnetic Waves
B
Rate of energy flow:
dx
dU c 1 2
 ( 0 E 
2
B )A
dt 2 m0 area
A
E

We define the intensity S, as the rate


of energy flow per unit area:
c
S  ( 0 E 
2 1 B2 )
c propagation
2 m0 direction
Energy Flow in Electromagnetic Waves

B
Rate of energy flow:
dx
dU c 1 2
 ( 0 E 
2
B )A
dt 2 m0 area
A
E

We define the intensity S, as the rate


of energy flow per unit area:
c
S  ( 0 E 
2 1 B2 )
c propagation
2 m0 direction

Rearranging by substituting E=cB and B=E/c, we get,


c
S  ( 0cEB  1 EB )  1 (  0 m0c  1 )EB 
2 EB
2 m0c 2m0 m0
The Poynting Vector

In general, we find: B

dx
S = (1/m0) E x B area
E
A

S is a vector that points in the


direction of propagation of the 
wave and represents the rate of S propagation
energy flow per unit area. direction
We call this the “Poynting vector”.

Units of S are Jm-2 s-1, or Watts/m2.


The Inverse-Square Dependence of S
A point source of light, or any radiation, spreads
out in all directions: Power, P, flowing
through sphere
Source is same for any
radius.

P
S 
4r 2
Source
r
Area  r2
1
S I 
P S 2
4r 2 r
Calculating Intensity of Wave
In calculating intensity, you must distinguish between
average values and total values:

P
I 
IT  c 0 E  2c 0 E
2
m
2
rms
A
Area A

I avg  1
c 0 Em2
I avg  12 c 0 Em2  c 0 Erms
2 2

Since E = cB, we can also express I in terms of B:

c 2c c c
IT  B 2
B 2
I avg  B 
2 2
Brms
m0 m0 2m0 m0
m rms m
Example 2: A signal received from a radio station has
Em = 0.0180 V/m. What is the average intensity at that
point?
The average intensity is:

I avg  c 0 E
1
2
2
m

I avg  (3 x 10 m/s)(8.85 x 10
1
2
8 -12 Nm2
C2
)(0.018 V/m) 2

I avg  4.30 x 10-7 W/m2


Note that intensity is power per unit area. The power of the source remains
constant, but the intensity decreases with the square of distance.
Wave Intensity and Distance
The intensity I at a distance r from an
isotropic source:

P P
I 
A 4 r 2
The average power of the source can A
be found from the intensity at a
distance r :
For power falling on surface of area
For isotropic conditions: A:

P  AI avg  (4 r ) I avg


2 P = Iavg A
Example 3: In Example 2, an average intensity of 4.30 x 10-7
W/m2 was observed at a point. If the location is 90 km (r =
90,000 m) from the isotropic radio source, what is the
average power emitted by the source?

P
I avg   2.39 x 10 -5
W/m 2
90 km 4 r 2
P = (4r2)(4.30 x 10-7 W/m2)

P = 4(90,000 m)2(4.30 x 10-7 W/m2)

Average power of
transmitter: P = 43.8 kW

This assumes isotropic propagation, which is not likely.


Radiation Pressure
EM-waves not only carry energy, but also carry momentum and exert pressure
when absorbed or reflected from objects.

Radiation Force
Recall that Power = F v
Pressure Area
P Fc F I A
I  or 
A A A c
The pressure is due to the transfer of momentum. The above relation gives the pressure
for a completely absorbing surface.
Radiation Pressure (Cont.)
The change in momentum for a fully reflected wave is twice that for an
absorbed wave, so that the radiation pressures are as follows:

Absorbed wave: Reflected wave:

Radiation Force Radiation Force


Pressure Area Pressure Area
A A

F I F 2I
 
A c A c
Example 4: The average intensity of direct sunlight is
around 1400 W/m2. What is the average force on a fully
absorbing surface of area 2.00 m2?

Absorbed wave: For absorbing surface: F I


Radiation Force 
A c
Pressure Area
IA
F
A

c
2 2
(1400 W/m )(2.00 m )
F F = 9.33 x 10-6 N
3 x 108 m/s
Example:
An observer is 1.8 m from a point light source whose average
power P= 250 W. Calculate the rms fields in the position of the
observer.

Intensity of light at a distance r is S = P / 4r2


I  P 2  1 Erms
2
4r m0 c

Pm0 c ( 250W )( 4 107 H / m )( 310


. 8m / s)
 Erms  
4r 2 4 ( 1.8m )2

 Erms  48V / m
Erms
B   48V8 / m  0.16 mT
c 310
. m/ s
Example:
An observer is 1.8 m from a point light source whose average
power P= 250 W. Calculate the rms fields in the position of the
observer.

Intensity of light at a distance r is S = P / 4r2


I  P 2  1 Erms
2
4r m0 c

Pm0 c ( 250W )( 4 107 H / m )( 310


. 8m / s)
 Erms  
4r 2 4 ( 1.8m )2

 Erms  48V / m
Erms
B   48V8 / m  0.16 mT
c 310
. m/ s
Example:
An observer is 1.8 m from a point light source whose average
power P= 250 W. Calculate the rms fields in the position of the
observer.

Intensity of light at a distance r is S= P / 4r2


I  P 2  1 Erms
2
4r m0 c

Pm0 c ( 250W )( 4 107 H / m )( 310


. 8m / s)
 Erms  
4r 2 4 ( 1.8m )2

 Erms  48V / m
Erms
B   48V8 / m  0.16 mT
c 310
. m/ s
Summary

 EM waves are transverse waves. Both E


and B are perpendicular to wave velocity
c.
 The ratio of the E-field to the B-field is
constant and equal to the velocity c.
 Electromagnetic waves carry both energy
and momentum and can exert pressure
on surfaces.
Summary (Cont.)
EM-waves travel at the speed of
light, which is: E 1
c c
c = 3.00 x 108 m/s B  0 m0

2
B
Total Energy Density: u  2  0 E  2m0
1 2

Em Bm
Erms  and Brms 
2 2
Summary (Cont.)
The average energy density:

uavg   0 E
1
2
2
m
or
uavg   0 E 2
rms

I avg  c 0 E  c 0 E
1
2
2
m
2
rms

Intensity and Totally Totally


Distance Absorbing Reflecting
F I F 2I
P
I 
P
 
A 4 r 2 A c A c