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MEANING OF FORCE

Meaning of force
• The push or pull applied a change in the:
– State of rest or motion of an object
– Shape or condition of an object
– Speed of an object
– Direction of motion of an object
• The push, which brings about a change in
its state of rest or motion is known as
force.
Meaning of force
• Thus force be defined as:
• An external agent, which changes or tends
to change the state of rest or state of
motion of a body.
• Force is a vector quantity.
Classification of force
• Contact forces represent the result of
physical contact between two objects,
where one of the object exert force on the
other.
Contact forces
• Klicking of a football
• Stretchging of the spring of a balance
• Pushing of a pram
ACTION AT A DISTANCE FORCES
• Action at a distance forces are the forces,
which do not involve phyisical contact
between the two objects but act through
the space between the two.
ACTION AT A DISTANCE FORCES
Balanced and unbalanced forces
• Unbalanced forces
• When two or more forces are acting
simultaneously on an object the resultant of
forces can be equal to zero greater than zero.
Balanced and unbalanced forces
• When a number of forces acting on a body do
not cause any change in its state fo rest, or of
uniform motion along a straight line then the
forces are said to be balanced forces.
Balanced and unbalanced forces
BALANCED FORCES
• When a number of forces acting on a body do
not cause any change in its state fo rest, or of
uniform motion along a straight line then the
forces are said to be balanced forces.
• Unbalanced forces
• When the resultant of all the forces acting on a
body is not zero, then the forces are said to be
unbalanced forces.
NEWTON’S LAW OF MOTION
• Today
Hari iniwekitawill
akanexpress this more hal
mengungkapkan
qualitatively in threedalam
yang lebih kualitatif laws which are called
tiga hukum
Newton's
yang disebut Laws. Hukum Newton.
• The
Hukumfirstpertama
law really benar-benar
goes back akanto thekembali
first
ke bagian
part 17th century.
of the pertama dari abad ke-17.
• It
Ituwas
adalah Galileo
Galileo whoyang menyatakan
expressed what he apa
yang disebut
called the lawhukum inersia
of inertia and Idan
will saya
read akan
you
membacakan
his law. hukumnya.
GALILEO CALLED
‘THE LAW OF INERTIA’
• "A
“Benda
bodydalam
at restkeadaan
remainsdiam
at rest "and
tetap a body
diam" dan
benda
in dalam
motion keadaantoakan
continues move terus
"at bergerak
constant
pada kecepatan
velocity along a konstan
straight sepanjang
line unlessgaris
acted
lurus kecuali
upon dipengaruhi
by an external oleh gaya "luar."
force."

• And
Dan now
sekarang saya to
I will read akan
youmembacakanmu
Newton's own
yang dikatakan
words Newton
in his famous dalam
book, bukunya
Principia.
yang terkenal, Principia.
FAMOUS BOOK, ‘PRINCIPIA’
• Newton's first law
• Every
Setiapbody benda selalu tetap
perseveres dalam
in its statekeadaan
of rest
diam
or atau gerak
of uniform beraturan
motion in a right dalam
line garis
unless
itlurus kecuali dipaksa
is compelled untuk
to change that mengubah
state by
keadaan
forces oleh gaya
impressed yang
upon it.mencetaknya.
• If
Jikathegaya
total total
forceyangacting on a body
bekerja padaisbenda
zero,
adalah
then nol, maka
it travels in a benda
straightmelewati garis
line at constant
lurus dengan
speed. i.e. its kelajuan
velocity iskonstan.
constantyaituand its
kecepatan konstan
acceleration is zero.dan percepatannya nol.
FAMOUS BOOK, ‘PRINCIPIA’
• Newton's second law
• “Gaya
"A force action
yang on a body
bekerja pada gives
bendait an
acceleration which
memberikan is in the
percepatan ke direction
arah gayaofdan
the
force andbesaran
memiliki has a magnitude
yang diberi given
olehby ma."
ma."
• ma adalah besar danand
is the magnitude arahthe
dari gaya. is of
direction
the force.
FAMOUS BOOK, ‘PRINCIPIA’
• Newton's Third Law
• "If onesebuah
"Jika object benda
exerts mengerjakan
a force on another
sebuah
"the
gayaother
padaexerts
bendathe same
lain" force
benda lainin
opposite direction
mengerjakan gayaon the sama
yang one." dengan arah
yang berlawanan pada benda pertama. "
Hukum
• The Ketiga
Third Law sebagai “aksi
as "Action sama
equals dengan
minus
minus reaksi."
reaction."
Newton's first law

1st
Newton's second law
Forces are unbalanced

There is an acceleration

There acceleration There acceleration


depends directly depends inversely
upon the net force upon the object’s
mass 1
a F a
m
2nd
Newton's first law
Fv

Fgrav OPEN CLOSE

• ∑F = 0 • ∑F = 0
• An object in motion
• An object at stays in motion with
rest stays at the same speed and
rest in the same
direction.
Newton's second law

• ∑F = m a or
• a = Fnet / m
There acceleration There acceleration
depends directly depends inversely
upon the net force upon the object’s
mass
Newton's Third Law

FA = - FR

3th