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FOOD IRRADIATION

Group members:

 TRẦN THỊ MỸ HẠNH BTFTIU15070


 HUỲNH THỊ NHƯ NGỌC BTFTIU15016
OUTLINE
I. INTRODUCTION
II. FOOD IRRADIATION PROCESS
III. FOOD IRRADIATION SAFETY
IV. REFERENCES
Why Food Irradiation?
• In 1999, food-borne disease was responsible for:
 76 million illness
 325,000 hospitalizations
 5000 deaths
 $6-30 billion impact
• 25% of worldwide food production is lost after harvesting due
to insects, bacteria and spoilage.
I. INTRODUCTION
 Radiation: the emission and transmission of energy in the form of
waves or particles through space or through material medium

 Irradiation: the process of applying radiation to matter

 Food irradiation is exposure of food product to ionizing radiation to


destroy microorganisms, insects, and parasites that cause diseases
and spoilages
• Limitted use allow since 1963 on specific on food products for
specific purposes.
I. INTRODUCTION:
Why irradiate foods?
 Prevention of Foodborne Illness - to effectively eliminate
organisms that cause foodborne illness, such
as Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli)
 Preservation - to destroy or inactivate organisms that cause
spoilage and decomposition and extend the shelf life of foods.
 Control of Insects -to destroy insects in or on tropical fruits
 Delay of Sprouting and Ripening –to increase longevity.
 Sterilization -are useful in hospitals for patients with severely
impaired immune systems
II. FOOD IRRADIATION PROCESS
• Food is exposed to a carefully measured amount of intense ionizing
radiation.

• This is done in a special processing room or chamber for a specified


duration.

• With food irradiation, radiant energy breaks chemical bonds, leaving


the food still like-fresh, but with specific benefits, depending on
treatment level.
II. FOOD IRRADIATION PROCESS

IONNIZING RADIATION
-Causes disruption of internal metabolism of cells by destruction of chemical
bonds

-DNA cleavage results in loss of cells ability to reproduce


FOOD IRRADIATION PROCESS
Sources of Ionizing irradiation
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

High Frequency Low Frequency


Short Wavelengths Long Wavelengths
Electron beams

+ A stream of high energy electrons, propelled out of an


electron guns
+It can be turned on or off since it uses no radioactive
material
+Electron beams can only penetrate three centimeters, or a
little over an inch
X-RAYS

-Generated by directing an electron beam at a thin


metal plate
-X-rays can pass through thick foods, and require
heavy shielding for safety
- No radioactive substances are involved
Gamma rays

- most widely used type of ionizing radiation


- Gamma rays with specific energies normally come
from the spontaneous disintegration of radionuclides
- Cobalt-60 is produced by neutron bombardment in
a nuclear reactor of the metal cobalt-59, then doubly
encapsulated in stainless steel “pencils”
FOOD IRRADIATION FACILITIES
HOW IONIZING RADIATION WORKS

• Electrons disrupt the DNA chain either destroying or preventing


reproduction of the organism
HOW DOES IRRADIATION FOOD
PROCESSING OPERATION WORK?

-Food is packed in containers and moved by


conveyer belt into a shielded room.
-Food is exposed briefly to a radiant-energy source.
-Food is left virtually unchanged, but the number of
harmful bacteria, parasites and fungi is reduced and
maybe eliminated.
FOOD IRRADIATION REGULATED
- Food and Drug Admistration (FDA)

-USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service(FSIS) –


meat, poultry

-USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service -


plant
FOOD IRRADIATION SAFETY
IRRADIATION DOSAGE
 Dose – amount of energy transferred
 Rad – old unit
 Gray (Gy) – new unit
 1kGy = 100,000 rad
 1 chest X-ray= 0.01 rad
 Natural background = 0.1 rad/year
APPROXIMATE DOSES OF RADIATION
NEEDED TO KILL VARIOUS ORGANISMS
Organisms Dose(kGy)

Higher animal 0.005 to 0.1

Insects 0.01 to 1

Non-spore forming bacteria 0.5 to 10

Bacterial spores 10 to 50

Viruses 10 to 200
LEVEL OF FOOD IRRADIATION

 Radurization ( low) < 1kGy


- vegetable sprouting, fruit ripening, insect sterilization

 Radicidation (mediun) 1-10kGy


-kills most pathogens ang many food spoilage organisms, kills insects
and parasites.

 Rappertization (high) > 10kGy


-can sterlize by killing all bacteria and virus.
What Foods Can Be Irradiated?
Approval Dose
Food Purpose
Year (kGy)
1963 Wheat Flour 0.2-0.5 Control of mold

1964 White Potatoes 0.05-0.15 Inhibit sprouting

1986 Pork 0.3-1.0 Kill Trichina parasite

•Insect Control
1986 Fruit and Vegetables 1.0
•Increase Shelf Life
1986 Herbs and Spices 30 Sterilization
1990(FDA) 3(FDA)
Poultry Bacterial
1992(USDA) 1.5-3(USDA)
pathogen
1997(FDA) reduction
Meat 4.5
1999(USDA)
EFFECTS OF RADIATION
Effect on food

+most food is made up of dead cells


living cells cause sprouting and spoilage
-DNA damage delays spoiling and prevents
sprouting
-longer shelf-life
EFFECTS OF RADIATION
Side-effects
+Nutritional effects
-macronutrients –proteins, carbohydrates, fats –
unaffected
-micronutrients –vitamins-some reduction
comparable to other processing or storage techniques
including pasteurization, canning, or even cold
storage
HOW DO IRRADIATED PROSUCTS
TASTE?
- The same tastes non-irradiated
- Flavor changes: type of food, dose, temperature…
Example: Fruits & vegetables unchanged low dose
+ Poultry, pork, meat: low or high dose
+ Milk and other dairy.
Safety of irradiation facilitilies
Over 30 years of experience
- 100+ medical sterilization plants
- bone marrow transplant centers
No public exposure to radiation
Independent regulators
-gamma rays: NRC
-X-ray&e-beam:FDA
SAFETY TESTED
 Safety testing of irradiated foods has taken
place since the early 1950's.

 Studies have consistently shown no increase


in cancer, birth defects or any other negative
effect

 FDA must approve any use of irradiation on


food and USDA Food Safety and Inspection
Service (FSIS)

 Over 41 countries nationwide have approved


use of irradiation for over 30 food products.
Hazards with Food Irradiation
-The most common source of energy is cobalt60.

-In the irradiation process there are no hot fluids generated,


no radioactive gases released

-Facilities are constructed to standards designed with


multiple safeguards to protect worker health and safeguard
Irradiated Foods Labeled

-Government regulations require irradiated food at the retail level to be labeled


"Irradiated" and to bear an international logo.

- For irradiated foods that are not packaged, retailers must prominently display
the required logo and phrase.

- Foods containing irradiated ingredients such as spices, but which are not
themselves irradiated, need not bear a label.
Irradiated Food Safe
- Irradiated food can safely be consumed by
anyone.

- Irradiated foods present any increased risk of


exposure to harmful substances over
conventionally processed foods.
REFERENCES

 https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/how-does-food-irradiation-work

 The Food Irradiation Process-UW Food Irradiation Education Group

 FOOD IRRADIATION A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food World Health
Organization Geneva 1988

 https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION