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Introduction to Global AC Power

50 Hz, 220-240 V

50 Hz, 220-240 V
60 Hz, 120 V

50/60 Hz, 100V

50 Hz, 220-240 V
60 Hz, 110/220 V

60 Hz, 110/220 V
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Global Power Input Requirements

Know the Market your product is Intended to Serve !

• Min Voltage Variation = Nominal +10%/-15%


• Min Global Voltage Range: 85 – 264 VAC Note: Many products relax to 100 – 240VAC

• Min Frequency Variation = Nominal +/- 3 Hz


• Min Global Frequency Range: 47-53Hz, 57-63 Hz Note: Many products use 47-63 Hz

• Plug versions to cover Types A-M

For complete global listing see World Wide Electricity Reference document
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COUNTRY VOLTAGE FREQUENCY PLUG COMMENTS

* A UN correspondent reports C and F common in Kabul, but its likely a variety of plugs may
Afghanistan 220V 50 Hz C&F* be used around the country. Some sources report Type D also in use.

Albania 220V* 50 Hz C&F *Voltage variations common

*A variation of Type C with a ground post offset about 1/2-inch from center may also be
Algeria 230V 50 Hz C* & F found.

American Samoa 120V 60 Hz A, B, F & I

Angola 220V 50 Hz C

Anguilla 110V 60Hz A (maybe B)

Antigua 230V* 60 Hz A&B *Airport area is reportedly Antigua power is 110V.

*Neutral and line wires are reversed from that used in Australia and elsewhere. Click here for
Argentina 220V 50 Hz C & I* more.

Armenia 220V 50 Hz C&F

Aruba 127V* 60 Hz A, B & F *Lago Colony 115V

*Outlets typically controlled by adjacent switch.


Australia 230V* 50 Hz I Though nominal voltage has been officially changed to 230V, 240V is within tolerances and
commonly found.

Austria 230V 50 Hz C, F

Azores 220V* 50 Hz B, C, & F *Ponta Delgada 110V; to be converted to 220V

For complete global listing see World Wide Electricity Reference document
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AC Power Quality – Standards

Types A & B
No Standardization,
Many Types

Many countries have multiple plug/receptacle types in service


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AC Power Quality – Standards

A typical voltage sag


Voltage sags are by far the most common power disturbance
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ANSI - American National Standards Institute

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission


Organizations that
create power
standards NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

NFPA - National Fire Protection Association

NEC - National Electric Code

US Military
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• IEEE 1433: Power Quality Definitions

• IEEE 519: Harmonic Control in Electrical Power


IEEE Power Systems

Quality • IEEE 1159 :Monitoring Electric Power Quality

Standards • IEEE P1564: Voltage Sag Indices (Prelim)

• IEEE P1453: Voltage flicker (Prelim)

• IEEE P446: Emergency and standby power


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• IEC SC77A: Low frequency EMC Phenomena

• SC 77A/WG 1: Harmonics and other low-frequency


disturbances
• SC 77A/WG 6: Low frequency immunity tests

• SC 77A/WG 2: Voltage fluctuations and other low-


IEC Power frequency disturbances
Quality • SC 77A/WG 8: Electromagnetic interference related
to the network frequency
Standards
• SC 77A/WG 9: Power Quality measurement
methods

• SC 77A/PT 61000-3-1: Electromagnetic


Compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-1: Limits - Overview of
emission standards and guides.
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• MIL-STD-1399:
"Interface Standard for Shipboard Systems" covers the design
and testing of electric power systems and user equipment. It applies only to shipboard power. The standard
is fairly complete, covering Type I, II, and III shipboard power. It provides specifications on sags,
interruptions, impulses, unbalance, and harmonics.
Last revision: Notice 1, 11 Mar 1992.

• MIL-STD-704E:
"INTERFACE STANDARD: AIRCRAFT ELECTRIC POWER
CHARACTERISTICS" specifications for aircraft power quality, including DC, single-phase,
and three-phase systems. It provides specifications on sags, interruptions, impulses, unbalance, and
Military Power harmonics.
Last revision: 1 May 1991.

Quality Stds • MIL-M-24116B(SH):


"Monitors, Voltage and Frequency, 400 Hz Electric
Power" covers trip levels and durations of voltage and frequency monitors. It applies only to
shipboard installations.

Last revision: Amendment 1, 29 October 1985 .


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• ANSI C62: Guides and standards on surge protection

ANSI Related • ANSI C84.1: Voltage ratings for equipment & power
systems
Standards
• ANSI C57.110: Transformer derating for supplying non-
linear loads
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Table of AWGs and approximate corresponding size and current capacity (ampacity)
solid wires. Stranded wires are calculated by calculating the
The following applies to

equivalent cross-sectional area.

Diameter Diameter
AWG NEC
(mm) Ampacity with
(in) 60°C insulation
1 7.348 0.2893 110
2 6.543 0.2576 95
3 5.827 0.2294 85
4 5.189 0.2043 70
5 4.621 0.1819
6 4.115 0.1620 55 Wire must be treated as
7 3.665 0.1443
8 3.264 0.1285 40 any Resistor in terms
9 2.906 0.1144 of voltage drop, power
10 2.588 0.1019 30 dissipation and thermal
11 2.304 0.0907
12 2.052 0.0808 20 rise
13 1.829 0.0720
14 1.628 0.0641 15
15 1.450 0.0571
16 1.291 0.0508 12
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Applicable Safety Devices


• Switches
• Thermal 1-Time Metalic Fuses
• PTC Auto-Resettable Fuses
• PTC Inrush Current Limiters
• Thermal and Magnetic Circuit Breakers
• EMC Line Filters
• Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
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AC Power Efficiency – Standards