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Structure of Atom

Learning outcomes:

After studying this lesson you will be able to…

 Know the matter its types and composition.
 Describe structure of the atom
 Explain sub-atomic particles
 Demonstrate the understanding of electrical
 Illustrate atomic shells and orbits
 Define Atomic number and atomic mass number
 Explain Isotopes
Section- I Section- II
 Matter  Elec. Charge
 Atom  Atomic No.
 Proton  Atomic mass
 Electron  Shells
 Neutron  Isotopes
 Scientists
Forms of matter:

Gases: Free

Liquids: Sparse

Solids: Bound up
Composition of matter:
Every matter (be it solid,
liquid or gas) is composed
of small invisible particles.
These small particles are
called as Atoms.
Human hair and microscopic particles
Size of Atom compared to human hair

Atoms are fundamental
building blocks of the
matter. They are made up of
smaller elements called
protons, neutrons and
electrons. Altogether these
elements are called as sub-
atomic particles
Quick fact:
In 1800’s it was believed
the atoms are the smallest
particle of the matter and
can not be divided into
smaller particles.
3 D Model of an Atom

Sub-atomic particles:
 Protons
 Neutrons
 Electrons
 Proton:
A proton is a subatomic
particle. It is located in the
nucleus of atom. And it has
a positive electrical charge.
The proton is represented
by symbol p or P+.
 Neutron:
The neutron is a subatomic
particle. It is located in the
nucleus of an atom. And it
does not have any electrical
charge. The neutron is
represented by symbol
n or n0.
 Nucleus:
Nucleus is the central part
of the atom. It is composed
of protons and neutrons.
Protons and neutrons are
called as nucleons. The
nucleus has a positive
charge. Nucleus is bound to
each other by strong
nuclear force between
 Electron:
An electron is subatomic
particle. It is located outside
the nucleus orbiting around
the central part (nucleus=
Protons + Neutrons) of
atom. It is negatively
charged. The electron can
be free and independent as
well as bound with the
nucleus of atom. The
electron is represented by
symbol e −.
Subatomic particles:

A) Atom: B) Electron:

John Dalton J. J Thomson:

Year: 1800’s Year: 1850’s
Discovery of Atom Discovery of Electron

C) Proton: D) Neutron:

Ernest Rutherford James Chadwick

Year: 1920 Year: 1932
Discovery of Proton Discovery of Neutron
 Electrical charge:
Electrical charge is the
property of a matter that
causes it to experience a
force when placed in an
electromagnetic field.
Simply the electrical charge
is the force of attraction
between sub-atomic
particles. Electrical charge
is of two types the Positive
and the Negative.
Protons: p+ : Electrons: e-
 Atomic number:
The atomic Element At. No.
number represents the
Hydrogen 1
number of protons in the
nucleus of an atom. The Helium 2
atomic number can also be Lithium 3
called as the proton number Beryllium 4
it is denoted by symbol (Z). Boron 5
The atomic number is Carbon 6
important because it Nitrogen 7
determines the identity of
Oxygen 8
an element and many of its
chemical properties.
 Scientific Notations:

 Atomic Mass Number:
The mass number (symbol
A) is also called as atomic
mass number or
nucleon number. The
atomic mass number is the
total number of protons
and neutrons in the
nucleolus of an atom.
Thank You

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