Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

UPTAKE AND MOVEMENT

OF WATER IN PLANTS
EXERCISE 13
Robles | Serrano | Villaver
TISSUE CONCERNED WITH
WATER ASCENT IN THE
STEM
The effect of defoliation on the ascent
of water in the stem
Species Used: Boehmeria nivea

Result: SET UP LENGTH OF STAINED


PORTION (cm)
defoliated 6.5
Intact leaves 9.0

Figure 13.1 Cross-section of the stained portion the stem of Boehmeria nivea
Discussion
 One of the factors that affects transpiration
rate is the surrounding air. The drier the air,
the faster the evaporation and transpiration
rate is.

 Therefore, in the absence of leaves, there is


less evaporation that will make the water less
move upwards.
Discussion

More water needs to beUpward “pulling” force is


More leaves More water lost
replaced greater
LIFTING POWER OF
TRANSPIRATION
Lifting power of transpiration
Species Used: Ixora coccinea

Result:
Total time of observation: 30 min.

SET UP MAX. HEIGHT RATE OF ASCENT


(cm) (cm/min)
defoliated 1.7 0.06
Intact leaves 3.2 0.11

Maximum of height (cm)


Rate of ascent = ____________________
(cm/min) Total time of observation (min)
Calculations
1.7 cm 0.0566666 cm/min
Defoliated rate of
= ______ =
ascent (cm/min) or 0.06 cm/min
30 min.

Intact leaves rate of


3.2 cm
______ = 0.106666 cm/min
=
ascent (cm/min)
30 min. or 0.11 cm/min
Discussion
 As water is lost
through evaporation
from leaves, it is
replaced by water
taken up by the roots
from the soil.
 In transpiration, the
hydrogen bonds of
water molecules
allows the upward
“pulling” force from
the soil to the leaves.
The cohesion-tension theory of sap
ascent

Water lost from


Root absorbs Water is pulled by
evaporation
water tension
(negative pressure)

Water molecules’
Water held by
cohesion to each
adhesion to xylem
other allows
vessels at night
pulling
THE EFFECT OF LIGHT
AND WIND ON THE RATE
OF TRANSPIRATION
Potometer method
Species Used: Ixora coccinea

Result:
Total time of observation: 5 min.

ENVIRONMENTAL DISTANCE TRAVELED TRANSPIRATION


CONDITION 1 2 3 Mean RATE (ml/hr)
Low light & still air 11 11 11.2 11.07 26.07
High light & windy 11.5 13.5 14.5 13.17 31.02

Transpiration
πr2h
____________________
=
rate (ml/hr) Total time of observation (hr)
Calculations
Π(0.25 2)(11.07)
Low light & still = ___________ = 26. 06985 ml/hr
air TR (ml/hr) 5/60 hr.

Π(0.25 2)(13.17)
Intact leaves rate of
= ___________ = 31.015535 ml/hr
ascent (cm/min)
5/60 hr.
Discussion
 In the presence of high light intensity, the
stomates are open that allows water
vaporization. This water vapor diffuses first on
the boundary layer that slows down water
loss. However, moving air hastens this
mechanism.
 Therefore, there is direct proportionality of
light & wind to transpiration rate.
Discussion

Higher light intensity Higher transpiration


and air velocity rate
Weighing method
Species Used: Glycine max

Result:
ENVIRONMENTAL Weight (g) Total surface Transpiration
CONDITION Initial Final Difference area of leaves rate per leaf
(cm2) area
(g/hr cm)
Plant exposed to light 342.3 330.1 12.2 385 1.32 x 10^-3
Plant under shade 332.3 328.2 4.1 372 4.59 x 10^-4

Initial weight – Final weight


Transpiration rate per ____________________
leaf area =
(g/hr cm) (leaf area) (time)

Surface area of leaves = (area of square cut-out/ 100 cm^2)(total weight of leaf cut-outs)
_________________________________________
Weight of the square cut-out
Calculations
12.2 g
Transpiration rate = ____________________
= 1.32 x 10^-3 g/hr x
per leaf area (385 cm^2) (24 hrs) cm
(g/hr cm)

= (100 cm^2) (1.77 g) = 385 cm^2


Surface area of _______________
leaves 0.46 g
Discussion
 An increase in light intensity is directly
proportional to leaf’s thickness, density and
surface area.

 As larger area of the leaf is exposed, more


water is lost from its stomates.

 This loss increases the transpiration rate.


Discussion

Larger surface area of Higher evaporation/ more


Higher light intensity Higher transpiration rate
leaves water lost
STUDY QUESTIONS
1. Why should the shoot be cut
under water?
Shoots should be cut under water to prevent
the entry of gas in the xylem tissues which
will prevent the water ascent. This is called
embolism, cavitation or ‘air-lock’.

This also happens when the demand for


water or the “pulling” force is greater than
the bonding of the water molecules. This
usually happens during dry season.
2. Given the following water potential values in the
different plant parts:
leaf = -2.00 MPa stem= -1.0 MPa
root= -0.6 MPa soil= -0.3 MPa
In what order will the water move within the
plant body? Give the reason for your answer.
Water will be absorbed by
the roots then it will pass
through the endodermis
layer to reach its xylem
tissues which are
connected to the plant
stem’s xylem tissues that
will deliver it to the
leaves. Water moves this
way based from higher
water potential to lower
water potential.
3. What are the advantages and
disadvantages of transpiration?

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE

Evaporative cooling Water loss


Soil nutrients access
Carbon dioxide uptake
Sources
https://www.sciencemag.org/site/feature/misc/webfeat/vis2005/show/transpirati
on.pdf

https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-wmopen-biology2/chapter/transport-
of-water-and-solutes-in-plants/

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00345535