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Ash Handling

System

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WHAT IS ASH?
Ash is the residue remaining after the coal has been
incinerated to constant weight under standard conditions.
Ash is oxidised form of the mineral matters present in
coal.
Typical ash composition : SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO,
MgO etc.
Coal with more SiO2 & Al2O3, Ash MP > 1400ºC
Coal with more Fe2O3, CaO & MgO, Ash MP < 1100ºC

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WHY ASH HANDLING?

Ash content of Indian coal used in power station is


about 30 to 40 %.
A typical 2000 MW station produce around 9000T to
12000T of ash per day.
This huge amount of ash needs to be disposed off
continuously.
Necessary care to be taken for preventing pollution

Ash Handling system takes care the above requirement

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WHAT HAPPENS TO THE ASH
PRODUCED?
20 % Of the ash falls at the bottom of the furnace known
as Bottom Ash (BA).
80 % of the ash carried away with flue gas known as FA.
BA can form slag and clinker depending on the temp.
of the combustion zone and environment inside.
reducing environment (Less O2) reduces ash MP.
BA is disposed off through BA disposal system.
FA is collected through ESP and disposed through FA
disposal system.

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Overburden Surge Pile

Coal Seam Pulverize (-150)

Electrostatic Precipitator Boiler


Flue Gas Flue Gas
Fly Ash
Fly Ash Bottom Ash

Bottom
Fly Ash
Ash
Smoke
Stack

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Ash volumes and properties
Furnace ESP
(1300 - 1500°C)

Economizer Electrostatic Stack


Precipitator
Air
preheater
Pulverize APH
d

Stage B: 17 %
Stage A: 80 %

Stage C: 3 %
Coal

Coal Bottom AshEco Ash APH Ash Fly ash


100 % 10-20 % 1% 1% 80-90 % Ash
Fineness
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BA Handling System
BA can be collected at furnace bottom as Wet or Dry form.
Wet bottom ash system consists of i)Trough seal, ii)BA
gate, iii)Hopper, iv)Scrapper Conveyer, v)Clinker grinder,
vi)BA trench, vii)BA tank, viii)BA pump, ix)BA pond.
Dry BA consists of i)Trough seal, ii)BA gate, iii)Hopper,
iv)Scrapper Conveyer, v)Clinker grinder, vi)Silo.
Trough seal : A channel around the furnace bottom
filled with water where the furnace bottom end is
immersed in water. This is to prevent air ingression in the
boiler during operation.

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Direct Disposal

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BA Handling System
BA Gate: Each hopper has separate gate to isolate Scrapper
conveyor from running furnace for any repairing at scrapper.
Scrapper Conveyer : Consists of number of scrapper bars
fasten at both the ends with two chain which can run on
chain pulley and driven by scrapper conveyor motor. The
whole conveyor is submerged in water for wet BA system.
Bottom ash after falling on scrapper is scrapped away by the
running conveyor to one end of the conveyor to clinker
grinder.
Clinker grinder : Any big size ash clinker is crushed to
enable to be carried away by water jet through BA trench.
BA trench : Through water jet ash slurry is carried away to
BA tank
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BA Handling System
BA pump : Ash slurry handling pump. It carries ash to the BA pond.
Depending on the distance of BA pond two or more BA pumps
connected in series.
BA pond : Finally ash is discharged to ash pond. It is a large area
surrounded by embankment. Ash mixed with water is allowed to settle
for considerable time. Water from top surface is allowed to go out from
the pond through a designed escape route. Quality of water discharge is
always monitor for turbidity and heavy metal. Piezo meter is used for
monitoring the slope stability of the embankment.
BA Supporting water pumps
LP BA pump : Supply water to trough seal, scrapper conveyor sump,
BA sump and LP jets.
HP BA pump : HP jets in BA trench and line cleaning.

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Dry BA Handling System

Dry BA collection system after clinker grinder collect ash


to silo through a transport mechanism for further transport
through road system.

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FA Handling System
FA is collected from Air heater hopper, Eco hopper and
ESP hopper.
Either through flushing apparatus or hydrobactur system.
In Flushing apparatus system ash is allowed to fall in
flushing apparatus under gravitation.
Water jet in flushing apparatus carries away the ash to FA
trench
High pressure jets further carries it to FA sump.
Series pumping carries the ash slurry to FA pond.

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Dry FA Handling System

Hydrobackter is a vacuum device to collect ash from the


hopper.
Water jet ejectors used for creating vacuum.
Dry ash thus collected to silo through belt conveyor.
Dry ash is disposed through road transport to a dry ash
disposal system. Part of it sold for commercial purpose

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ASH UTILISATION
Major usage of ash
•Fly ash bricks / blocks
•Cellular concrete products
•Light weight aggregates
•Concrete and mortar
•In manufacture of cement
•In manufacture of asbestos products
•Road construction
•Embankment/back fills/land development
•Controlled low strength material (CLSM)
•In agriculture
•Mine filling
•Manufacture of fertiliserPMI Revision 00
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Other usage
•Manufacture of distemper
•Floor and wall tiles
•Refractory bricks
•Manufacture of ceramics
•Use with Ferro cement
•Recovery of metals
•Use in grouting
•Manufacture of alum
•Extraction of Cenospheres
•Domestic cleaning powder
•In synthetic wood

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THANK YOU

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